Michael Ledeen: “The Unknown Catacombs,” Commentary, September, 1977, p. 65.


Tullia Zevi and Sam Waagenaar: “The Jewish Catacombs of Rome: A Neglected Treasure of Our Past,” Hadassah Magazine, December, 1979, p. 38. (Tullia Zevi is Rome correspondent for the Jewish Chronicle of London, and Sam Waagenaar, a journalist residing in Rome, is author of The Ghetto on the Tiber, a history of the Jews of Rome.)


The lulav and etrog are used in rituals associated with the festival of Succoth, the Feast of Tabernacles.


A gerusiarch is the head of an assembly of elders.


Stalactites are icicle-like formations of calcium carbonate that hang from the roofs or sides of caverns. They are produced when water seeps through limestone and partially dissolves the rock.