The page numbers refer to the canonical English-language edition of Worlds in Collision (Velikovsky, 1950).


A supernova is a titanic stellar explosion which occurs in the late evolution of stars more massive than the Sun.


Actually, Exodus states that manna fell each day except on the Sabbath. A double ration, uninfected by worms, fell instead on Friday. This seems awkward for Velikovsky’s hypothesis. How could the comet know? Indeed, this raises a general problem about Velikovsky’s historical method. Some quotations from his religious and historical sources are to be taken literally; others are to be dismissed as “local embellishments.” But what is the standard by which this decision is made? Surely such a standard must involve a criterion independent of our predispositions toward Velikovsky’s contentions.



Lecar, M., and Franklin, F., “On the Original Distribution of the Asteroids.” Icarus, 20:422–436 (1973).


Young, L. D. G., and Young, A. T., Comments on “The Composition of the Venus Cloud Tops in Light of Recent Spectroscopic Data.” Ap.J., 179:L39 (1973).

Sill, G., “Sulfuric Acid in the Venus Clouds.” Communications Lunar Planet Lab., University of Arizona, 9:191–198 (1972).

Young, A. T., “Are the Clouds of Venus Sulfuric Acid?” Icarus, 18:564–582 (1973).

Pollack, J. B., Erickson, E., Witteborn, F., Chackerian, C., Summers, A., Augason, G., and Caroff, L., “Aircraft Observation of Venus’ Near-infrared Reflection Spectrum: Implications for Cloud Compositions,” Icarus, 23:8–6 (1974).