The Egyptians reclaimed a great amount of Israelite treasure when Pharoah Shishak invaded the Land of Israel several hundred years later ( see 1 Kings 14:25–26).


The five sites are Bab edh-Dhra, es-Safi (Zoar), Numeira, Feifa (eh)and Khanazir, all Early Bronze (3150–2200 B.C.E.) sites overlooking a wadi that drains into the Dead Sea.



Peter Ellis, The Yahwist, the Bible’s First Theologian (Notre Dame: Fides, 1968), p. 136.


Ephraim A. Speiser’s interpretation of the sistership documents of Nuzi and their relationship to Genesis is defended in his commentary, Genesis, The Anchor Bible Series (Garden City, NY: Doubleday, 1964), pp. 91–92. This view is now rejected by most scholars. See Cecil J. Mullo Weir, “The Alleged Hurrian Wife-Sister Motif in Genesis,” Transactions of the Glasgow University Oriental Society 22 (1967), pp. 14–25.


See James P. Harland, “Sodom and Gomorrah: The Location and Destruction of the Cities of the Plain,” Biblical Archaeologist (BA) 5 (1942), pp. 17–32, and BA 6 (1943), pp. 41–54.


Walter E. Rast and R. Thomas Schaub, Survey of the Southeastern Plain of the Dead Sea, 1973, Annual of the Department of Antiquities of Jordan 19 (1974). See also Willem C. van Hattem, “Once Again: Sodom and Gomorrah,” Biblical Archaeologist 44 (1981), pp. 87–92; Rast and Schaub, “On the New Site Identifications for Sodom and Gomorrah,” in Queries & Comments BAR 07:01.


See James B. Pritchard, ed., Ancient Near Eastern Texts Relating to the Old Testament, 3rd ed. with supplement (Princeton, NJ: Princeton Univ. Press, 1969) (ANET), p. 220, for an example of adoption at Nuzi, and p. 174 (sections 185–193) for adoption documents in Hammurabi’s law code. See also Sabatino Moscati, Ancient Semitic Civilizations (New York: G.P. Putnam’s Sons, 1957), p. 83, and Ephraim A. Speiser, Annual of the American Schools of Oriental Research 10 (1930), pp. 7–13. For an example of a man at Ugarit who adopted his grandson, see Isaac Mendelsohn, “A Ugaritic Parallel to the Adoption of Ephraim and Manasseh,” Israel Exploration Journal 9 (1959), pp. 180–183.


A point made by Rashi in his commentary on the Pentateuch and cited in The Soncino Chumash (London: Soncino, 1947), p. 64.


See Nahum M. Sarna, Understanding Genesis (New York: Schocken Books, 1966), pp. 116, 121–122.


See ANET, p. 220. Less applicable is section 146 of the Code of Hammurabi (ANET, p. 172).


Compare a law in the Ur-Nammu collection, in ANET, p. 525