1. See Robin Ngo, “Canaanite Fortress Discovered in the City of David,” Bible History Daily (blog), April 7, 2014 (

2. See Hershel Shanks, “After Hadrian’s Banishment: Jews in Christian Jerusalem,BAR 40:05; Eilat Mazar, “Temple Mount Excavations Unearth the Monastery of the Virgins,BAR 30:03; Jodi Magness, “Illuminating Byzantine Jerusalem,BAR 24:02.


1. Hillel Geva, “Jerusalem’s Population in Antiquity: A Minimalist View,” Tel Aviv 41 (2014), pp. 131–160.