1. Alan R. Millard, “How Reliable Is Exodus?BAR 26:04.

2. Nadav Na’aman, “The Trowel vs. the Text,BAR 35:01.


1. René Girard, Violence and the Sacred (Baltimore: The Johns Hopkins Univ. Press, 1977).

2. See Maren Niehoff, The Figure of Joseph in Post-Biblical Jewish Literature (Leiden: E.J. Brill, 1992) and Bernhard Lang, Joseph in Egypt: A Cultural Icon from Grotius to Goethe (New Haven: Yale Univ. Press, 2009).

3. See Hans Rudolf Vaget, Thomas Mann, der Amerikaner (Frankfurt am Main: S. Fischer, 2011), pp. 149–156.

4. See Konrad Schmid, “Die Josephsgeschichte im Pentateuch,” in Jan Christian Gertz, Konrad Schmid and Markus Witte, eds., Abschied vom Jahwisten: Die Komposition des Hexateuch in der jüngsten Diskussion (Berlin: W. de Gruyter, 2002), pp. 83–118.

5. See Erle Leichty, The Royal Inscriptions of Esarhaddon, King of Assyria (680–669 B.C.), The Royal Inscriptions of the Neo-Assyrian Period 4 (Winona Lake, IN: Eisenbrauns, 2011), pp. 9–26.

6. See, for example, Stephanie Dalley, Esther’s Revenge at Susa: From Sennacherib to Ahasuerus (Oxford: Oxord Univ. Press, 2007), pp. 27–40.

7. Simo Parpola, “The Murderer of Sennacherib,” in Bendt Alster, ed., Death in Mesopotamia (Copenhagen: Akademisk Forlag, 1980), pp. 171–181.

8. Parpola, “The Murderer of Sennacherib.”

9. For the most recent discussion of Sennacherib’s wives and children, see Eckart Frahm, “Family Matters: Psychohistorical Reflections on Sennacherib and His Times,” in Isaac Kalimi and Seth Richardson, eds., Sennacherib at the Gates of Jerusalem (Leiden: Brill, 2014), pp. 163–222.

10. Erle Leichty, “Esarhaddon’s Exile: Some Speculative History,” in Robert D. Biggs and Martha T. Roth, eds., Studies Presented to Robert D. Biggs (Chicago: The Oriental Institute, 2007), pp. 189–191.

11. See Steven W. Holloway, Aššur Is King, Aššur Is King: Religion in the Exercise of Power in the Neo-Assyrian Empire (Leiden: Brill, 2001), pp. 388–426.

12. Note that according to Genesis 44:4, 5, 14, Joseph was not only a dream interpreter but also a specialist in the more technical discipline of lecanomancy, a form of divination using a bowl filled with water or oil.

13. See, most recently, Frederick Mario Fales, “After Ta’yinat: The New Status of Esarhaddon’s Adê for Assyrian Political History,” Revue d’Assyriologie 106 (2012), pp. 133–158.

14. Herbert Niehr, Weisheitliche, magische und legendarische Erzählungen: Aramäischer Aḥiqar (Gütersloh: Gütersloher Verlagshaus, 2007).

15. See Kim Ryholt, “The Assyrian Invasion of Egypt in Egyptian Literary Tradition,” in Mogens Trolle Larsen and Jan Gerrit Dercksen, eds., Assyria and Beyond: Studies Presented to Mogens Trolle Larsen (Leiden: Nederlands Instituut voor het Nabije Oosten, 2004), pp. 483–510.

16. For a translation, see Miriam Lichtheim, Ancient Egyptian Literature, vol. 2 (Berkeley: University of California Press, 1976), pp. 203–211. Because of the early date of the papyrus leaves, some doubt as to whether the tale would have been available to the author(s) of the Joseph story.

17. Joachim Quack, “Danaergeschenk des Nil?” in Angelika Berlejung, ed., Disaster and Relief Management: Katastrophen und ihre Bewältigung (Tübingen: Mohr Siebeck, 2012), pp. 333–381.

18. See Joseph M. Modrzejewski, The Jews of Egypt: From Rameses II to Emperor Hadrian (Princeton: Princeton Univ. Press, 1995), pp. 21–44.

19. See Brian Lewis, The Sargon Legend (Cambridge, MA: American Schools of Oriental Research, 1980).

20. M. Weinfeld, “Semiramis: Her Name and Her Origin,” in Hayim Tadmor, Mordechai Cogan and Israel Eph‘al, eds., Ah, Assyria …: Studies in Assyrian History and Ancient Near Eastern Historiography Presented to Hayim Tadmor (Jerusalem: Magnes Press, 1991), pp. 99–103; see also Eckart Frahm, “Of Doves, Fish, and Goddesses,” forthcoming.

21. See Eckart Frahm, Geschichte des alten Mesopotamien (Ditzingen: Stuttgart, 2013), pp. 254–272.