During the seventh to fifth centuries B.C., Greek vases were generally decorated with black figures on a lighter background. During the Attic period (fifth to fourth century B.C.), however, the natural red terra-cotta of the vase was left exposed for the figures, and the background was painted black.



Mary Remnant, Musical Instruments of the West (New York: St. Martin’s Press, 1978), p. 138 and figs. 119.5–9.


See Terence C. Mitchell, “The Music of the Old Testament Reconsidered,” Palestine Exploration Quarterly 124 (1992), p. 137.


See, e.g., John Boardman, Early Greek Vase Painting: 11th-6th Centuries B.C.—A Handbook (London: Thames and Hudson, 1998), figs. 99, 105, 131, 145.


See Martha Maas and Jane M. Snyder, Stringed Instruments of Ancient Greece (New Haven: Yale Univ. Press, 1989), p. 74, fig. 7; pp. 102–111, figs. 5, 6, 11, 17, 26; p. 134, fig. 11.


See Mitchell, “Music of the Old Testament,” p. 135.


See Austen Henry Layard, Monuments of Nineveh, 2nd ser. (London: John Murray, 1853), pl. 49; and Discoveries in the Ruins of Nineveh and Babylon (London: John Murray, 1853), pp. 454–455, p. 454 n.


See, e.g., Remnant, Musical Instruments of the West (London: Batsford, 1978), p. 177; see also, conveniently, The Century Dictionary, rev. ed., 10 vols. (London and New York: The Century Co., 1899), vol. 7, p. 5337, with an illustration from a Persian painting (this dictionary was edited by the great Yale Sanskrit scholar William Dwight Whitney).


The illustration appeared in George Rawlinson, The Five Great Monarchies of the Ancient Eastern World, 2nd ed., 3 vols. (New York: Dodd, Mead, & Co., 1881), vol. 1, p. 538; and Carl Engel, The Music of the Most Ancient Nations, Particularly the Assyrians, Egyptians and Hebrews (London: J. Murray, 1864).


Engel, Music.


In Mitchell and Ray Joyce, “The Musical Instruments in Nebuchadnezzar’s Orchestra,” in D.J. Wiseman, ed., Notes on Some Problems in the Book of Daniel (London: Tyndale Press, 1965), pp. 19–27, at pp. 25–26.


Herodotus, Histories 4.76.


Conveniently quoted in Andrew Barker, Greek Musical Writings, vol. 1, The Musician and His Art (Cambridge: Cambridge Univ. Press, 1984), pp. 59–60, 74–76, 88.


E.g., in Boardman, Athenian Red Figure Vases: The Classical Period—A Handbook (London: Thames and Hudson, 1989), pls. 177, 229, 285, 294, 324; see also, in general, Martin Litchfield West, Ancient Greek Music (Oxford and New York: Clarendon, 1992), p. 124; Mitchell, “Music of the Old Testament,” p. 137.