Readers may be confused by the use of the two spellings of “tel” and “tell” to refer to an ancient mound. “Tell” is the transliteration of the Arabic word and is used with an Arabic site name; “tel” is the transliteration of the Hebrew word and modifies a Hebrew site name. When speaking of specific mounds we use the appropriate spellings; but when speaking in general we use “tell.”


A glacis is an artificial ramp built against a slope in order to fortify it. This was the typical fortification used in the country during the Middle Bronze Age.


These excavations are sponsored by a number of public bodies, primarily by the Samuel H. Kress Foundation in New York, as well as The Northwest Christian College in Eugene, Oregon; Central College in Pella, Iowa; Florida College in Florida, and the University of South Africa in Pretoria.


In addition to those mentioned above, the archaeological core-staff of the expedition includes A. Urweider from Switzerland, architect, and Orna Zimhoni, recorder. Song Nai Rhee from Oregon is the U.S. expedition’s coordinator.