See also the discussion in Morten Hørning Jensen, Herod Antipas in Galilee (Tübingen: Mohr Siebeck, 2010), pp. 154–156. To learn more about Herod Antipas, visit herodantipas.com.


See Mordechai Aviam, “Socio-Economical Hierarchy and Its Economical Foundations in First Century Galilee,” in Jack Pastor, Menahem Mor and Prina Stern, eds., Flavius Josephus: Interpretation and History (Leiden: Brill, 2011), pp. 29–38; Mordechai Aviam, “Yodefat/Jotapata: The Archaeology of the First Battle,” in Andrea M. Berlin and J. Andrew Overman, eds., The First Jewish Revolt: Archaeology, History, and Ideolog (London: Routledge, 2002), pp. 121–133 and others.


Uzi Leibner, “Settlement and Demography in Late Roman and Byzantine Eastern Galilee,” in Ariel S. Lewin and Pietrina Pellegrini, eds., Settlements and Demography in the Near East in Late Antiquity (Rome: Istituti Editoriali e Poligrafici Internazionali, 2006), p. 115. Cf. Uzi Leibner, Settlement and History in Hellenistic, Roman, and Byzantine Galilee: An Archaeological Survey of the Eastern Galilee, Studies and Texts in Antiquity and Christianity 127 (Tübingen: Mohr Siebeck, 2009), p. 333.


See David Adan-Bayewitz and Mordechai Aviam, “Iotapata, Josephus, and the Siege of 67: Preliminary Report of the 1992–94 Seasons,” Journal of Roman Archaeology 10 (1997), pp. 157–161.


Josephus, The Life of Flavius Josephus, 65.


See David Noy, Alexander Panayotov and Hanswulf Bloedhorn, Eastern Europe, Texts and Studies in Ancient Judaism 101 (Tübingen: Mohr Siebeck, 2004), pp. 234–235.