Censuses of ancient cities did not exist according to modern standards. In The Rise of Christianity (Princeton: Princeton Univ. Press, 1996), p. 131, Rodney Stark estimates Ephesus as the third-largest city of the Roman Empire (following Rome and Alexandria) with a population of 200,000, and Antioch the fourth largest with 150,000. Mark Wilson, Biblical Turkey: A Guide to the Jewish and Christian Sites of Asia Minor (Istanbul: Yaylinlari, 2010), p. 200, estimates the population of Ephesus at 250,000, slightly less than that of Antioch.


F.F. Bruce, The Acts of the Apostles: The Greek Text with Introduction and Commentary (Grand Rapids: Eerdmans, 1984), p. 367; Ernst Haenchen, The Acts of the Apostles: A Commentary (Philadelphia: Westminster Press, 1971), p. 575.


Polybius, Histories 21.6.7; 21.37.5–6; Dionysius of Halicarnassus, Roman Antiquities 2.19.4.


See Sarah Morris, “Zur Vorgeschichte der Artemis Ephesia,” in Ulrike Muss, ed., Die Archäologie der ephesischen Artemis: Gestalt und Ritual eines Heiligtums (Vienna: Phoibos-Verlag, 2008), pp. 58–59.


First proposed by Gerard Seiterle, “Artemis, die grosse Göttin von Ephesos,” Antike Welt 10 (1979), pp. 3–16; followed by Robert Fleischer, “Neues zu kleinasiatischen Kultstatuen,” Archaeolögischer Anzeiger (1983), pp. 81–93; and recently by Guy MacLean Rogers, The Mysteries of Artemis of Ephesos. Cult, Polis, and Change in the Greco-Roman World (New Haven and London: Yale Univ. Press, 2012), p. 119. For a survey of the Mother Goddess figure and her relation to Ephesian Artemis, see James R. Edwards, “Galatians 5:12: Circumcision, the Mother Goddess, and the Scandal of the Cross,” Novum Testamentum 53 (2011), pp. 319–337.


See Wilhelm Dittenberger, Orientis Graeci Inscriptiones Selectae, vol. 2 (Hildesheim, Zürich and New York: Georg Olms Verlag, 1986), pp. 125–183.


Cited in Rosalinde A. Kearsley and Trevor V. Evans, eds., Greeks and Romans in Imperial Asia: Mixed Language Inscriptions and Linguistic Evidence for Cultural Interactions until the End of A.D. 111 (Bonn: Dr. Rudolf Habelt GMBH, 2001), pp. 134–135.


Walter Bauer and Frederick William Danker, A Greek-English Lexicon of the New Testament and Other Early Christian Literature, 3rd ed. (Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 2001), p. 206.


Bauer and Danker, Greek-English Lexicon, pp. 14–15, “the courts are in session.”


William M. Ramsay, The Church in the Roman Empire Before A.D. 170 (Grand Rapids: Baker Book House, 1979), pp. 112–145.