See Steven Holloway, “Mad to See the Monuments,” BR 17:06.



The ensuing international uproar created a demand for copies of the lectures, which went through numerous editions. For a scholarly text-critical approach to the various published editions, see Reinhard G. Lehmann, Friedrich Delitzsch und der Babel-Bibel-Streit, Orbis Biblicus et Orientalis 133 (Freiburg: Universitätsverlag; Göttingen: Vandenhoeck & Ruprecht, 1994). Of the several English editions of the lectures, the most often cited are Friedrich Delitzsch, Babel and Bible: Two Lectures Delivered Before the Members of the Deutsche Orient-Gesellschaft in the Presence of the German Emperor, ed. C.H.W. Johns, Crown Theological Library 1 (London: Williams and Norgate; New York: Putnam’s Sons, 1903), and Friedrich Delitzsch, Babel and Bible: A Lecture on the Significance of Assyriological Research for Religion, trans. T.J. McCormack (Chicago: Open Court, 1902). Eventually, McCormack provided all three lectures in translation: Friedrich Delitzsch, Babel and Bible: Three Lectures on the Significance of Assyriological Research for Religion, Embodying the Most Important Criticisms and the Author’s Replies, trans. McCormack, W.H. Carruth and I.G. Robinson (Chicago: Open Court, 1906). For more references, see Lehmann, Delitzsch, pp. 382–384. For summaries of Delitzsch’s arguments, see Jacob J. Finkelstein, “Bible and Babel: A Comparative Study of the Hebrew and Babylonian Religious Spirit,” Commentary 26 (1958), pp. 431–444; Herbert B. Huffmon, “Babel und Bibel: The Encounter Between Babylon and the Bible,” Michigan Quarterly Review 22 (1983), pp. 309–320; Klaus Johanning, Der Bibel-Babel-Streit: Eine forschungsgeschichtliche Studie, Europäische Hochschulschriften 23/343 (Frankfurt am Main: Peter Lang, 1988); and Mogens Trolle Larsen, “The ‘Babel/Bible’ Controversy and Its Aftermath,” Civilizations of the Ancient Near East, ed. Jack Sasson (New York: Scribners, 1995), vol. 1, pp. 99–103.


From the conclusion to the printed versions of lecture one; Friedrich Delitzsch, Babel und Bibel: Ein Vortrag (Leipzig: Hinrichs, 1902), pp. 51–52.


Lehmann, Delitzsch, p. 244.


Released in two volumes in 1920 and 1921: Friedrich Delitzsch, Die Grosse Täuschung: Erster Teil, Kritische Betrachtungen zu den alttestamentlichen Berichten über Israels Eindringen in Kanaan, die Gottesoffenbarung vom Sinai und die Wirksamkeit der Propheten (Stuttgart/Berlin: Deutsche Verlags-Anstalt, 1920) and Die Grosse Täuschung: Zweiter (Schluss-) Teil, Fortgesetzte kritische Betrachtungen zum Alten Testament, vornehmlich den Prophetenschriften und Psalmen, nebst Schlußfolgerungen (Stuttgart/Berlin: Deutsche Verlags-Anstalt, 1921).


Delitzsch, Die Grosse Täuschung, pt. 1, p. 97.


Delitzsch’s anti-Semitism has been thoroughly documented and widely acknowledged. See Lehmann, Delitzsch, pp. 268–271, and Larsen, “The ‘Babel/Bible’ Controversy,” pp. 104–105.


Delitzsch, Ein Vortrag, pp. 19–20.


Delitzsch, Babel und Bibel: Dritter (Schluss-) Vortrag (Stuttgart: Deutsche Verlags-Anstalt, 1905), pp. 3–4.


Delitzsch, Dritter (Schluss-) Vortrag, pp. 4–6, 32–37.


Delitzsch, Dritter (Schluss-) Vortrag, pp. 23, 56–57.


Delitzsch, Dritter (Schluss-) Vortrag, p. 48.


Delitzsch, Die Grosse Täuschung, pt. 1, p. 96, pt. 2, pp. 59–66.


Julius Wellhausen for example. On the anti-Semitism of Wellhausen in general, see Joseph Blenkinsopp, Prophecy and Canon, University of Notre Dame Center for the Study of Judaism and Christianity in Antiquity 3 (Notre Dame, IN: Univ. of Notre Dame Press, 1977), pp. 20–22; and Jon D. Levenson, The Hebrew Bible, the Old Testament, and Historical Criticism: Jews and Christians in Biblical Studies (Louisville, KY: Westminster/John Knox, 1993), pp. 41–43.


See Larsen, “The ‘Babel/Bible’ Controversy,” p. 105. Wilhelm was anticipated by Delitzsch (Die Grosse Täuschung, pt. 2, pp. 62–66).


Delitzsch, Die Grosse Täuschung, pt. 1, pp. 107–108.


Delitzsch, Die Grosse Täuschung, pt. 1, p. 105.


For details of the evolutionary approaches to religion dominant at the time and Delitzsch’s role in them, see Bill T. Arnold and David B. Weisberg, “A Centennial Review of Friedrich Delitzsch’s ‘Babel und Bible’ Lectures,” forthcoming.


Adolf von Harnack, Marcion: Das Evangelium vom fremden Gott: Eine Monographie zur Geschichte der Grundlegung der katholischen Kirche, Texte und Untersuchungen 45, rev. and enl. ed. (Leipzig: Hinrichs, 1924), p. 217.


See Brevard S. Childs, Introduction to the Old Testament as Scripture (Philadelphia: Fortress, 1979), pp. 670–671. In essence, Old Testament theology from a Christian perspective is a formulation of the relationship between the two testaments (see Matitiahu Tsevat, “Theology of the Old Testament—A Jewish View,” Horizons in Biblical Theology 8 [1986], pp. 33–50).


The second-century date refers to Marcion’s attempt to compose a canon of Scripture in conformity to his anti-Jewish bias, which contained only a version of the Gospel of Luke, ten letters of Paul and his own work titled “Antitheses.” Marcion taught that the God of Jesus was not the same as the God of the Hebrew Scriptures, and that in fact the God of the Hebrews should be rejected. But it was Marcion who was rejected by the church in Rome beginning during his lifetime in the second century C.E. With the leadership of Irenaeus and Tertullian, the early church of the second and third centuries rose to the challenge, and with Augustine in the fourth century the issue was finally settled. See Childs, Old Testament as Scripture, p. 42; and John J. Clabeaux, “Marcion,” Anchor Bible Dictionary (ABD) (Garden City, NY: Doubleday, 1992), vol. 4, pp. 514–516.


Delitzsch, Zweiter Vortrag über Babel und Bibel (Stuttgart: Deutsche Verlags-Anstalt, 1903), p. 39; and on p. 42, he presented his work as a “dispassionate, historical-critical reinvestigation of the relevant documents.”


Delitzsch, Babel und Bibel: Ein Rückblick und Ausblick (Stuttgart: Deutsche Verlags-Anstalt, 1904), pp. 57–66.


Delitzsch, Rückblick und Ausblick, p. 63, and see Delitzsch, Die Grosse Täuschung, pt. 2, p. 4.