See Kenneth Atkinson, “Diggers—From Paid Peasants to Eager Volunteers,” BAR 20:01.



See Robert M. Little, “George Andrew Reisner and His Contemporaries,” in The Archaeology of Jordan and Other Studies, Lawrence T. Geraty and Larry G. Herr, eds. (Berrien Springs, MI: Andrews University Press, 1986), p. 184; “Reisner, George Andrew,” in Who’s Who in America, vol. 22 (Chicago: A.N. Marquis Company, 1942), p. 1830; and John Wilson, Signs and Wonders Upon Pharaoh: A History of American Egyptology (Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1964), pp. 144–145.


Rosalie David, Discovering Ancient Egypt (London: Facts on File, 1993), p. 45; George A. Reisner, The Early Dynastic Cemeteries of Naga-Ed-Der part 1 (Leipzig: J.C. Hinrichs, 1908), pp. vii–viii; H.S. Smith, “Nubia,” in Excavating in Egypt: The Egypt Exploration Society 1882–1982, ed. T.G.H. James (Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1982), p. 124; Bruce G. Trigger, A History of Archaeological Thought (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1989), p. 197; Wilson, Signs and Wonders, pp. 145–149.


See George Andrew Reisner, Clarence Stanley Fisher, and David Gordon Lyon, Harvard Excavations at Samaria 1908–1910 (Cambridge: Harvard University Press, 1934), pp. 3–6; Cyrus Adler, Jacob H. Schiff: His Life and Letters, vol. 2 (Garden City, NY: Doubleday, 1928), pp. 18–31; Philip J. King, American Archaeology in the Mideast: A History of the American Schools of Oriental Research (Philadelphia: Eisenbrauns, 1983), pp. 39–41, 141–145; P.R.S. Moorey, A Century of Biblical Archaeology (Louisville: Westminster/John Knox Press, 1991), pp. 35–36, 56, 62–63; Neil Asher Silberman, Digging for God and Country: Exploration, Archeology, and the Secret Struggle for the Holy Land 1799–1917 (New York: Alfred A. Knopf, 1982), pp. 171–179.


See Reisner, Field Diary of the Samaria Excavations 1910 (unpublished), quoted in Ivan T. Kaufman, “The Samaria Ostraca: An Early Witness to Hebrew Writing,” Biblical Archaeologist 45:4 (1982), p. 229.


Reisner, Harvard Excavations at Samaria, pp. 391–408, and plates 84, 86–87.


Reisner, Harvard Excavations at Samaria, pp. 42–43.


See Clarence S. Fisher, The Excavations of Armageddon (Chicago: Oriental Institute, 1929); and William F. Badè, A Manual of Excavation in the Near East: Methods of Digging and Recording of the Tell en-Nasbeh Expedition in Palestine (Berkeley: Univ. of California Press, 1934).


For opinions of Reisner’s legacy, see Philip J. King, “The Influence of G. Ernest Wright on the Archaeology of Palestine,” in Archaeology and Biblical Interpretation, eds. Leo G. Perdue et al. (Atlanta: John Knox Press, 1987), pp. 15–29; King, American Archaeology, pp. 39–41, 91–93, 141–145; William G. Dever, “Two Approaches to Archaeological Method—The Architectural and the Stratigraphic,” Eretz Israel 11 (1973), pp. 1*–8*; G. Ernest Wright, “Archaeological Method in Palestine—An American Interpretation,” Eretz Israel 9 (1969), pp. 120–133; G.R.H. Wright, “A Method of Excavation Common in Palestine,” Zeitschrift des Deutschen Palästina-Vereins 82 (1966), pp. 13–24.