See Duncan Mackenzie, “Excavations at Ain Shems (Beth-Shemesh), 1911,” Annual of the Palestine Exploration Fund 1 (1911), pp. 41–94; “Excavations at Ain Shems (Beth-Shemesh), 1912,” Annual of the Palestine Exploration Fund 2 (1912–1913).


Elihu Grant, Ain Shems Excavations (Palestine) 1928–1931, Part I (Haverford: Haverford College, 1931); Ain Shems Excavations (Palestine) 1928–1931, Part II (Haverford: Haverford College, 1932); Rumeileh Being Ain Shems Excavations (Palestine), Part III (Haverford: Haverford College, 1934). See also Beth-Shemesh (Palestine): Progress of the Haverford Archaeological Expedition (Haverford: Haverford College, 1929).


The excavation is being conducted under the auspices of the University of Bar-Ilan and Ben-Gurion University of the Negev. We have also received support from the Dr. Irving and Cherna Moskowitz Chair in the Land of Israel Studies, the Dr. Simon Krauthammer Chair in Archaeology at Bar-Ilan University, the Beth-Shemesh municipality and the Jewish National Fund. The project is directed by the authors and by associate director Steve P. Weitzman of Indiana University, Bloomington. Special thanks are offered to all our staff members, BAR volunteers and students from Bar-Ilan University, Ben-Gurion University, Indiana University, and North Bible College in Minnesota.


For the identification of the site see Edward Robinson, Biblical Researches in Palestine and the Adjacent Regions, vol. 2 (London: Crocker & Brewster, 1856), pp. 223–224; Charles Clermont-Ganneau, Archaeological Researches in Palestine, vol. 2 (London: Palestine Exploration Fund, 1896), pp. 209–210.


For a concise discussion pertaining to the history of the Shephelah during the Biblical period, see Anson F. Rainey, “The Biblical Shephelah of Judah,” Bulletin of the American Schools of Oriental Research (BASOR) 251 (1983), pp. 1–22.


Amihai Mazar, “Features of Settlement in the Northern Shephelah During MB and LB in the Light of the Excavations at Tel Batash and Gezer,” Eretz-Israel 20 (1989), pp. 62–65 (Hebrew) and additional references there.


Brian Hesse and Paula Wapnish, “New Perspectives and Evidence on Ethnicity and the Pig in the Levant” (paper presented at the annual meeting of the American Academy of Religion/Society of Biblical Literature/American Schools of Oriental Research [AAR/SBL/ASOR], Philadelphia, November 1995); Hesse, “Pig Lovers and Pig Haters: Patterns of Palestinian Pork Production,” Journal of Ethnobiology 10 (1990), pp. 195–225; Assaf Yasur-Landau and Shlomo Bunimovitz, “The Philistine Kitchen—Foodways as Ethnic Demarcators,” in Eighteenth Archaeological Conference in Israel, Abstracts (Jerusalem: Israel Exploration Society/Israel Antiquities Authority, 1992); Ann Killebrew, “Functional Analysis of Thirteenth and Twelfth Century B.C.E. Cooking Pots” (paper presented at the annual meeting of AAR/SBL/ASOR, San Francisco, November 1992).


James B. Pritchard, ed., Ancient Near Eastern Texts Relating to the Old Testament, rev. ed. (Princeton: Princeton University Press, 1955), p. 287.


Bibliography concerning the issue of LMLK jars is extensive. See most recently Andrew G. Vaughn, “The Chronicler’s Account of Hezekiah: The Relationship of Historical Data to a Theological Interpretation of 2 Chronicles 29–32” (Ph.D. diss., Princeton Theological Seminary, 1996), chap. 4. See also Nadav Na’aman, “Sennacherib’s Campaign to Judah and the Date of the LMLK Stamps,” Vetus Testamentum 29 (1979), pp. 61–86; Na’aman, “Hezekiah’s Fortified Cities and the LMLK Stamps,” BASOR 261 (1986), pp. 5–21, and reference there.


Grant and George Ernest Wright, Ain Shems Excavations (Palestine), Part IV (Haverford: Haverford College, 1938), p. 26; Wright, “Beth-Shemesh” in Michael Avi-Yonah, ed., Encyclopedia of Archaeological Excavations in the Holy Land (English edition; London: Oxford University Press, 1976), vol. 1, p. 252.


The first inspections of the water reservoir were conducted with the help of a group of researchers from the Israel Cave Research Center headed by Tsvi Tsuk. They also prepared the reservoir’s plan, which was drawn by Judith Dekel (Institute of Archaeology, Tel Aviv University). We thank them all for their help.