See the following Origins columns in Archaeology Odyssey by Denise Schmandt-Besserat: “Signs of Life” (describing how writing evolved from counting), January/February 2002; and “One, Two … Three” (describing the development of counting), September/October 2002.



Pierre Amiet, Elam (Auvers-sur-Oise: Archée Editeurs, 1966), p. 44, fig. 16.


Namio Egami, Telul eth Thalathat: The Excavations of Tell II 1956–1957, The Tokyo University Iraq-Iran Expedition, Report 1 (Tokyo: The Yamakawa Publishing Co., 1959), pl. 6.


Michael Roaf, Cultural Atlas of Mesopotamia (Oxford: Equinox, 1990), p. 38.


Annie Caubet and Patrick Pouyssegur, The Origin of Civilization, The Ancient Near East (Paris: Editions Pierre Terrail, 1997), pp. 40–41.


Dominique Collon, Ancient Near Eastern Art (Berkeley: University of California Press, 1995), p. 45.


Denise Schmandt-Besserat, How Writing Came About (Austin: The University of Texas, 1996); and Before Writing (Austin: The University of Texas, 1992).


Henri Frankfort, Progress of the Work of the Oriental Institute in Iraq, 1934–35. Fifth Preliminary Report of the Iraq Expedition, The Oriental Institute of the University of Chicago, Oriental Institute Communications, no. 20 (Chicago: University of Chicago, 1936), pp. 62 and 65, pls. 50–51; Pinhas Delougaz, Pottery from the Diyala Region, The Oriental Institute Publications, vol. 63 (Chicago: University of Chicago, 1952), pp. 70–72, pl. 138.


R. de Mecquenem, Mémoires de la mission archéologique en Iran, vol. 29 (1943), pp. 103–104, figs. 72 and 79; Amiet, Elam, pp. 135–136, fig. 106.