See Hershel Shanks, “Cracks in James Bone Box Repaired,” BAR 29:01.


See André Lemaire, “Burial Box of James the Brother of Jesus,” BAR 28:06, and Hershel Shanks and Ben Witherington III, The Brother of Jesus (San Francisco: HarperSanFrancisco, 2003).


In archaeometry, “patina” refers to a surface appearance that develops from a reaction of the object itself to the environment; “encrustation” implies a deposit that settles on a surface through migration of soluble minerals, either from within the object itself or from elsewhere.