Footnotes

1.

See Barry B. Powell and P. Kyle McCarter, Jr., “An Odyssey Debate: Who Invented the Alphabet?” AO 01:01.

2.

Referring to the Phoenicians—and their language—in the western Mediterranean, the term “Punic” derives from the Latin adjective punicus, a transliteration of the Greek Phoinikos (Phoenician), which derives from the Greek word for purple (as in purple dye).

3.

Similar, though smaller, Tophets have been found at Punic sites in Sicily, Sardinia and Mallorca.

4.

Many of the stones marking the burial niches where the urns were laid are inscribed with the triangular symbol of Tanit. The disk (or double disk) with extended lines on top of the symbol of Tanit may be the symbol of Ba’al Hammon.

Endnotes

1.

See P.G. Mosca, Child Sacrifice in Canaanite and Israelite Religion: A Study in Mulk and Molech, Ph.D. dissertation, Harvard University (1975), p. 22.

2.

Byron Khun de Prorok, Smithsonian Annual (1925), p. 571.

3.

De Prorok, In Quest of Lost Worlds (London: Frederick Muller, 1935), p. 4.

4.

Lawrence E. Stager and Samuel R. Wolff, “Child Sacrifice at Carthage—Religious Rite or Population Control?” BAR 10:01.

5.

Tertullian, Apology 9:2–4, trans. T.R. Glover (Loeb Classical Library, 1931).