Incidentally, Charles Wilson expressed his agreement with Warren that Robinson’s Arch supported a stairway, not a bridge. In his 1880 book, Jerusalem, the Holy City, Wilson clearly echoes Warren’s view that Robinson’s Arch “formed the first of a series of arches which supported a broad flight of steps leading from the Tyropoean Valley to the center aisle of the Royal Stoa, which ran along the south wall of Herod’s Temple.” (See Charles W. Wilson, Picturesque Palestine, Sinai and Egypt: Vol. 1, Jerusalem the Holy City [London: Virtue & Co., 1880], p. 39.)

Claude Conder was less judicious in his terminology and referred to Robinson’s Arch as part of “a great bridge” which spanned the Tyropoean Valley. (Claude R. Conder, Tent Work in Palestine: A Record of Discovery and Adventure, 2 vols. [London: Bentley, 1879], vol. 1, p. 351; and The City of Jerusalem [London: Murray, 1909], p. 137.)



Fergusson noted that the southwest corner of the Haram al-Sharif is a right angle, the only one out of the four corners of the enclosure to measure 90 degrees. The western wall of the Triple Gate passage runs approximately parallel to the western wall of the Haram and the southern boundary of the platform of the Dome of the Rock is parallel to the southern wall of the Haram.


Josephus, Jewish Antiquities 15.400.


Josephus, Jewish Antiquities 15.415.


Josephus, Jewish Antiquities 20.221.


Percy M. Young, P.M., George Grove, 1820–1900. A Biography (London: Macmillan, 1980).


Charles M. Watson, The Life of Major-General Sir Charles William Wilson, Royal Engineers, K.C.B., K.C.M.G., F.R.S., D.C.L., LL.D., M.E. (London: Murray, 1909), pp. 41–42.


John J. Moscrop, Measuring Jerusalem: The Palestine Exploration Fund and British Interests in the Holy Land (London and New York: Leicester University, 2000), pp. 76–77. For a biography of Charles Warren, see Watkin W. Williams, The Life of General Sir Charles Warren G.C.M.G., K.C.B., F.R.S. Colonel Commandant, Royal Engineers, (Oxford: Blackwell, 1941).


Charles Warren, Underground Jerusalem: An Account of Some of the Principal Difficulties Encountered in its Exploration and the Results Obtained. With a narrative of an Expedition through the Jordan Valley and a Visit to the Samaritans (London: Bentley, 1876), p. 3.


Palestine Exploration Fund (PEF) Archives JER/WAR/25; Warren, Underground Jerusalem, pp. 149–155.


Survey of Western Palestine (SWP): Plans, Elevations, Sections, &c., Shewing the Results of the Excavations at Jerusalem, 1867–1870 (SWP, Warren Atlas) (London: Palestine Exploration Fund, 1884), Plates XVIII, IXX, and XX.


SWP, Warren Atlas, Plates XVII and XVIII.


Survey of Western Palestine: Jerusalem Volume (SWP, Jerusalem) (London: Palestine Exploration Fund, 1884), pp. 176–183. The arch fragment was named after the American theologian, Edward Robinson, who had first drawn attention to it, believing that it had formed part of the bridge leading from Herod’s Temple to the Upper City, mentioned by Josephus [E. Robinson and E. Smith, Biblical Researches in Palestine, and in the Adjacent Regions. A Journal of Travels in the Year 1838, 2 volumes (London: 1841), vol. 1, p. 238 and pp. 287–288; Josephus, Jewish War, 6.325; Jewish Antiquities 15.410].


SWP, Warren Atlas, Plate XXIX.


Josephus, Jewish War 15.411-416.


Warren, Underground Jerusalem 1876, p. 69.


Josephus, Jewish Antiquities 15.410. Warren seems, initially, to have wavered in his interpretation because in The Recovery of Jerusalem he describes Robinson’s Arch as part of a bridge leading to the Upper City (See: Charles W. Wilson and Charles Warren, The Recovery of Jerusalem: A Narrative of Exploration and Discovery in the City and the Holy Land [London: Bentley, 1871], p. 310).


Warren, Underground Jerusalem, p. 317.


Both of these have the archive number JER/WAR/62/4.


Charles Warren, “Letter X: Progress of Works to 11th October, 1867”; “Letter XI: Jerusalem, October 12th, 1867,” Proceedings and Notes 1865–69, pp. 23–26.


Letter from Brian Lalor to the author, dated September 19, 2001.


SWP, Jerusalem, pp. 217–225.


Charles Wilson, Ordnance Survey of Jerusalem Made in the Years 1864 to 1865 (Southampton: Ordnance Survey Office, 1866), p. 44; SWP, Jerusalem, p. 220; S. Gibson and D.M. Jacobson, Below the Temple Mount: A Sourcebook on the Cisterns, Subterranean Chambers and Conduits of the Haram al-Sharif (Oxford: Tempus Reparatum, 1996), pp. 33–39.


The Times, April 5, 1869; reproduced in John (“Rob Roy”) Macgregor, “‘Rob Roy’ on the Works at Jerusalem,” Palestine Exploration Fund Quarterly Statement (PEQSt.), 1869, p. 20.


Josephus, Jewish War, 5.467. Struthion means “swallow” in Greek.


Warren, Underground Jerusalem, pp. 350–351; SWP, Jerusalem, pp. 211–222.


SWP, Jerusalem, pp. 226–233.


Warren, Underground Jerusalem, pp. 317–319; SWP, Jerusalem, pp. 97–116.


Josephus, Jewish Antiquities 8.97; cf. Ezekiel 43:12; Letter of Aristeas 84.


S. Gibson and J.E. Taylor, Beneath the Church of the Holy Sepulchre Jerusalem: The Archaeology and Early History of Traditional Golgotha (London: Palestine Exploration Fund, 1994).


James Fergusson, The Temples of the Jews and the Other Buildings in the Haram Area at Jerusalem (London: Murray, 1878), pp. 11–12, note 1. Apparently, Wilson did take Fergusson’s side in the controversy. However, by the end of his life he came to see that “Fergusson was entirely mistaken in his views” regarding the Temple Mount [Wilson, Golgotha and the Holy Sepulchre (London: Palestine Exploration Fund, 1906), p. 116]. The discovery of the famous sixth century C.E. mosaic map of the Holy Land at Madaba in Transjordan in 1896, which shows Constantine’s church on the traditional site of the Church of the Holy Sepulchre and not on the Temple Mount, provided Wilson with the clinching evidence that Fergusson’s theories were incorrect.


Fergusson, The Temples of the Jews, p. 172, note 1.


PEF Archives, JER/WAR/52; letter from Charles Warren to Walter Besant, the PEF Secretary, dated June 22, 1880.


Fergusson, The Temples of the Jews, p. vii; Charles Warren, The Temple or the Tomb; Giving Further Evidence in Favour of the Authenticity of the Present Site of the Holy Sepulchre, and Pointing Out Some of the Principal Misconceptions Contained in Fergusson’s ‘Holy Sepulchre’ and ‘The Temples of the Jews’ (London: 1880), title page.


Alfred E. Haynes, Man-Hunting in the Desert, Being a Narrative of the Palmer Search-Expedition (London: Cox, 1894).


Personal communication from Penny Warren.