See Meir Ben-Dov, “Found After 1400 Years—The Magnificent Nea,” BAR 03:04.


See “Jerusalem as Mosaic,” sidebar to “Illuminating Byzantine Jerusalem,” BAR 24:02.


For more on the Byzantine city, see Jodi Magness, “Illuminating Byzantine Jerusalem,” BAR 24:02.



Dan Bahat has suggested that the map should be redated to the second half of the seventh century since it depicts the Byzantine Gate of Mercy, which he believes was constructed in 629 C.E. for the visit of Heraclius on the eve of the Muslim conquest. See Dan Bahat, “A New Suggestion for the Date of the Madaba Map,” in Eretz-Israel in the Madaba Map, ed. Gabriel Barkay and Eli Schiller (Jerusalem: Ariel, 1996), pp. 74–75 (Hebrew).


See Herbert Donner, The Mosaic Map of Madaba—An Introductory Guide (Kampen, The Netherlands: Kok Pharos, 1992), p. 17; Michael Avi-Yonah, The Madaba Mosaic Map (Jerusalem: Israel Exploration Society, 1954).


On the role of the Madaba mosaic, see Donner, Mosaic Map, p. 30.


See P. Kyle McCarter, Jr., Ancient Inscriptions (Washington, DC: Biblical Archaeology Society, 1996), p. 141.


See E.D. Hunt, Holy Land Pilgrimage in the Later Roman Empire AD 312–460 (New York: Oxford Univ. Press, 1982), p. 118.


See Paul Geyer and Otto Cuntz, eds., Itinerarium Burdigalense, in Corpus Christianorum Series Latina (Turnhout, Belgium: Brepols, 1965), vol. 175, pp. 1–26.


See John Wilkinson, Jerusalem Pilgrims Before the Crusades (Warminster, UK: Aris & Phillips, 1977), pp. 47–52.


See Joseph Naveh, Stone and Mosaic: The Aramaic and Hebrew Inscriptions from Ancient Synagogues (Jerusalem: Israel Exploration Society, 1978) (Hebrew).


See Yaacov Sussmann, “An Halakhic Inscription from the Beisan Valley,” Tarbiz 43 (1974), pp. 88–158 and Tarbiz 44 (1975), pp. 193–195 (Hebrew). See also Sussmann, “The Inscription in the Synagogue at Rehob,” in Ancient Synagogues Revealed, ed. Lee I. Levine (Jerusalem: Israel Exploration Society, 1981), pp. 146–151; and McCarter, Ancient Inscriptions, p. 138.


See Israel Finkelstein and Raphael Frankel, “The Northwest Corner of Eretz-Israel in the baraita deteh ummin,” Cathedra 27 (1983), pp. 39–46 (Hebrew); and Finkelstein, “The Shephelah of Israel” Tel Aviv 8 (1981), pp. 84–94.


See Sussmann, “The ‘Boundaries of Eretz-Israel,’” Tarbiz 45(1976), pp. 213–257 (Hebrew); Zeev Safrai, “Marginal Notes on the Rehob Inscription,” Zion 42 (1977), pp. 1–23, esp. 1–12 (Hebrew); and Aaron Demsky, “The Permitted Villages of Sebaste in the Rehob Mosaic,” Israel Exploration Journal 29 (1979), pp. 182–193.


See Joshua Schwartz, Jewish Settlement in Judaea After the Bar-Kokhba War Until the Arab Conquest (Jerusalem: Magnes, 1986), pp. 183–194 (Hebrew). Schwartz argues for the existence of a small Jewish community in Jerusalem that existed during part of the Byzantine period.


See Aaron Demsky, “‘From Kziv unto the River Near Amanah’ (MShebi 6:1; 4:8): A Clarification of the Northern Border of the Returnees from Egypt,” Shnaton 10 (1986–1989), pp. 71–81 (Hebrew).


A case in point is the listing of sites like Nahal Zered in Transjordan that Sussmann and others have taken as schematic references. This probably reflects Jewish presence around the southeastern end of the Dead Sea, as is verified by the Bar-Kokhba letters from the early second century C.E.


See Demsky, “Holy City and Holy Land as Viewed by Jews and Christians in the Byzantine Period: A Conceptual Approach to Sacred Space,” in Sanctity of Time and Space in Tradition and Modernity, ed. A. Houtman, Marcel J.H.M. Poorthuis and Joshua Schwartz (Leiden: Brill, 1998), pp. 285–296, 361–368.