Alan R. Millard, “Re-creating the Tablets of the Law,” BR 10:01.



Umberto Cassuto, A Commentary on the Book of Exodus, English translation by Israel Abrahams (Jerusalem: Magnes Press, 1967), pp. 222, 235, 251.


See for example Cassuto, A Commentary on the Book of Genesis, pp. 12–15.


A well-known example is that the number of proverbs in the Book of Proverbs 10:1–22:16 is exactly 375, while according to the gematria (the system by which Hebrew letters also carry numerical values) the numerical value of sh-l-m-h, Solomon’s Hebrew name, is as follows: sh = 300: l=30, m=40, h=5. For examples from the Book of Psalms, see Ronald Youngblood, “Divine Names in the Book of Psalms: Literary Structures and Number Patterns,” The Journal of the Ancient Near Eastern Society 19 (1989), pp. 171–181.


Gerhard von Rad, Studies in Deuteronomy (Chicago: Henry Regnery Company, 1953), pp. 14–15; Meredith G. Kline, Treaty of the Great King (Grand Rapids: William B. Eerdmans Publishing Company, 1963), pp. 27–44; K. A. Kitchen, Ancient Orient and Old Testament (Chicago: Inter-Varsity Press, 1966), pp. 90–102; and Peter C. Craigie, The Book of Deuteronomy (Grand Rapids: William B. Eerdmans Publishing Company 1976) 22–24 30–32.


George E. Mendenhall, “Covenant Forms in Israelite Tradition,” The Biblical Archaeologist 17/3 (1954), pp. 58–60, 62–63. Although modifications in the details of Mendenhall’s conclusions have become necessary as a result of new appraisals of the evidence (see, for example, Mendenhall and Gary A. Herion, “Covenant,” The Anchor Bible Dictionary (New York: Doubleday, 1992), pp. 1183–1188), his overall thesis remains intact. The seminal study on this subject is Viktor Korosec, Hethitische Staatsvertrage (Leipzig: J. C. Hinrichs, 1931).


See Ronald F. Youngblood, Exodus (Chicago: Moody Press, 1983), pp. 94–95; and Raymond E. Brown, Recent Discoveries and the Biblical World (Wilmington: Michael Glazier, 1983), pp. 31, 33


Kline, Treaty of the Great King, pp. 13–26.


A. Leo Oppenheim, et al., eds., The Assyrian Dictionary (Chicago: Oriental Institute, 1964), vol. 1, A, part I, p. 133.


“The specified location of the documents as given in Hittite treaties can be rendered ‘under (the feet of)’ the god, which would then correspond strikingly to the arrangements in the Israelite holy of holies” (Kline, Treaty of the Great King, pp. 19–20). See also Victor Hurowitz, “Inside Solomon’s Temple,” BR 10:02, p. 37.


My use of “tend(s) to” in describing the practice of all three religious communions is deliberate. In each case, deviations from the expected norm are not hard to find.


This is the case for example in Mekhilta de Rabbi Simon ben Yochai. See Cassuto, A Commentary on the Book of Exodus, p. 251. See also Samson Raphael Hirsch, The Pentateuch Translated and Explained, vol. II, Exodus [English translation by Isaac Levy] (London: Hachinuch, 1956), p. 258.


Solomon Goldman, The Ten Commandments (Chicago: The University of Chicago Press, 1956), p. 30.