There is no doubt of the equation Urusalim=Jerusalem, based on the geographical description of its location.



See the following BAR articles: “‘Annual Miracle’ Visits Philadelphia,” BAR 22:02; and Hershel Shanks, “New Orleans Gumbo: Plenty of Spice at Annual Meeting,” BAR 23:02.


Although Philip Davies, one of the leading Biblical revisionists, has called this term a “sneering epithet,” Yale University scholar William Hallo has characterized it as “fairly innocuous” (“Biblical History in Its Near Eastern Setting: The Contextual Approach,” in Scripture in Context, ed. Carl D. Evans, William W. Hallo and John B. White [Pittsburgh, PA: Pickwick, 1980], p. 3).


Niels Peter Lemche and Thomas L. Thompson, “Did Biran Kill David? The Bible in the Light of Archaeology,” Journal for the Study of the Old Testament 64 (1994), p. 20.


David Tarler and Jane M. Cahill, “David, City of,” The Anchor Bible Dictionary (New York: Doubleday, 1992), vol. 2, pp. 52–67.


Kathleen Kenyon, Digging up Jerusalem (London: Benn, 1974), pp. 92, 114–115. See also G.J. Wightman, The Walls of Jerusalem: From the Canaanites to the Mamluks, Mediterranean Archaeology Supplement 4 (Sydney: Meditarch, 1993), pp. 33–35.


See Yigal Shiloh, Excavations at the City of David I, 1978–1982, Qedem 19 (Jerusalem: Hebrew University, 1984), p. 27. However, Tarler and Cahill have recently suggested that the Stepped-Stone Structure was constructed in the 13th–12th century B.C.E. (“David, City of,” Anchor Bible Dictionary).


See Thompson, Early History of the Israelite People: From the Written and Archaeological Sources, Studies in the History of the Ancient Near East 4 (Leiden: Brill, 1992), pp. 331–333; and Lemche, “Is It Still Possible to Write a History of Israel?” Scandinavian Journal of the Old Testament 8 (1994), pp. 184–185.


For details, see Nadav Na’aman, “The Contribution of the Amarna Letters on Jerusalem’s Political Position in the Tenth Century B.C.E.,” Bulletin of the American Schools of Oriental Research 304 (1997), pp. 17–27.


Na’aman, “Canaanite Jerusalem and Its Central Hill Country Neighbors in the Second Millennium B.C.E.,” Ugarit-Forschungen 24 (1992), pp. 275–291.


Tarler and Cahill, “David, City of.”


O. Goldwasser, “An Egyptian Scribe from Lachish and the Hieratic Tradition of the Hebrew Kingdoms,” Tel Aviv 18 (1991), pp. 251–252.


Avraham Biran and Joseph Naveh, “An Aramaic Stele Fragment from Tel Dan,” Israel Exploration Journal 43 (1993), and “The Tel Dan Inscription: A New Fragment,” Israel Exploration Journal 45 (1995).


Na’aman, “Beth-David in the Aramaic Stela from Tel Dan,” Biblische Notizen 79 (1995), pp. 17–24.


See the following articles in From Nomadism to Monarchy: Archaeological and Historical Aspects of Early Israel, eds. Israel Finkelstein and Na’aman (Jerusalem: Yad Itzhak Ben-Zvi, 1994): Adam Zertal, “‘To the Land of the Perizzites and the Giants’: On the Israelite Settlement in the Hill Country of Manasseh,” pp. 54–59; Avi Ofer, “‘All the Hill Country of Judah’: From a Settlement Fringe to a Prosperous Monarchy,” p. 102; and Finkelstein, “The Emergence of Israel: A Phase in the Cyclic History of Canaan in the Third and Second Millennia B.C.E.,” p. 159.


Thompson, Early History, p. 331.


Thompson, Early History, p. 331.


D.W. Jamieson-Drake, Scribes and Schools in Monarchic Israel: A Socio-archaeological Approach (Sheffield: Sheffield Academic Press, 1991).


Jamieson-Drake, Scribes and Schools.


See E.A. Knauf, “King Solomon’s Copper Supply,” in Phoenicia and the Bible, ed. E. Lipinski (Leuven: Peeters, 1991), pp. 171–172, and “From History to Interpretation,” in The Fabric of History: Text, Artifact and Israel’s Past, ed. D.V. Edelman (Sheffield, UK: Sheffied Academic Press, 1991), p. 39. See also Lemche, “Is It Still Possible to Write a History of Israel?” pp. 184–185; and Thompson, Early History, pp. 409–411.


Jamieson-Drake, Scribes and Schools, pp. 138–145. The chiefdom has been identified as an important stage in the development from a tribal society (sometimes called “segmentary society”) to a full-blown state. States are characterized by a greater number of institutions, a larger population, a more complex agricultural system, craft specialization, a defensive organization and a highly diversified administrative apparatus to coordinate social, religious and economic activity.


See Ofer, “Hill Country.”


Jamieson-Drake, Scribes and Schools, pp. 140–145.


See Knauf, “King Solomon’s Copper Supply,” pp. 172–184; Philip R. Davies, In Search of “Ancient Israel” (Sheffield, UK: Sheffield Academic Press, 1992), pp. 67–70; Lemche, “History of Israel,” pp. 168–171, 183–191; and Lemche and Thompson, “Did Biran Kill David?” pp. 15–20.


See G. Garbini, “L’impero di David,” Annali della Scuola Normale Superiore di Pisa 3:13 (1983), pp. 1–16, and History and Ideology in Ancient Israel, trans. J. Bowden (London: SCM, 1988), pp. 21–32; Jamieson-Drake, Scribes and Schools, pp. 136–145; Knauf, “King Solomon’s Copper Supply,” pp. 170–180; Thompson, Early History, pp. 331–334, 409–412; and Davies, In Search of “Ancient Israel”, p. 69.


Mario Liverani, Prestige and Interest: International Relations in the Near East ca. 1600–1100 B.C. (Padova, Italy: Sargon, 1990), p. 59.