Or “boor” (New Jewish Publication Society) or “churl” (Revised English Bible) or “brute” (New Jerusalem Bible).


The Hebrew has “may God do thus and more to the enemies of David.” The italicized words are lacking in the Greek Septuagint, on which many Christian Bibles are based.


The translation “male” appears in the New American Standard Bible, the New Revised Standard Version, the New International Version and the New King James Version. The American Standard Version, unaccountably, has “man-child.” But P. Kyle McCarter gets it right in his 1 Samuel, Anchor Bible Series 8 (Garden City, NY: Doubleday, 1980), p. 390.


For other examples, see Genesis 41:46 and Joshua 5:13.


Jon D. Levenson, “1 Samuel 25 as Literature and History,” in Literary Interpretations of Biblical Narratives, ed. Kenneth R.R. Gros Louis (Nashville: Abingdon, 1982), vol. 2, p. 227.


This pun is suggested by Ronald Youngblood, 1, 2 Samuel, Expositor’s Bible Commentary (Grand Rapids, MI: Zondervan, 1992), and others.


See Joyce Baldwin, 1 & 2 Samuel: An Introduction and Commentary, Tyndale Old Testament Commentary (Leicester, UK: InterVarsity, 1998), p. 147; Robert D. Bergen, 1, 2 Samuel, New American Commentary (Nashville: Broadman & Holman, 1996), p. 252 n. 131; Youngblood, 1, 2 Samuel, p. 752; and especially Moshe J. Garsiel, The First Book of Samuel: A Literary Study of Comparative Structures, Analogies and Parallels (Jerusalem: Rubin Mass, 1990), pp. 129–130.