See Kenneth A. Kitchen, “How We Know When Solomon Ruled,BAR 27:05.


See Thomas E. Levy and Mohammad Najjar, “Edom and Copper,BAR 32:04.



These are the most usual dates scholars use, but some scholars propose dates that vary from these by as much as 15 years.


Sheshonq, after coming to power in Lower Egypt (the Nile Delta area), spent several years subduing Upper Egypt and reuniting the country after decades of internal division. The fact that he had this relief carved on the walls of the Karnak Temple in Upper Egypt, and the fact that he is shown wearing the white crown of Upper Egypt, emphasize this fact. See Shirly Ben Dor Evian, “Shishak’s Karnak Relief: More than Just Name-Rings,” in S. Bar, D. Kahn and J.J. Shirley, eds., Egypt, Canaan and Israel: History, Imperialism, Ideology and Literature (Leiden: Brill, 2011), pp. 11–22.


I’d like to thank Dr. Dan’el Kahn of the University of Haifa for his help in clarifying some of the issues raised here.


William F. Albright, “Egypt and the Early History of the Negeb,” Journal of the Palestine Oriental Society 4 (1924), pp. 131–161.


Martin Noth, “Die Wege der Pharaonenheere in Palästina und Syrien, IV. Die Schoschenkliste,” Zeitschrift des Deutschen Palästina-Vereins 61 (1938), pp. 277–304.


For more on this subject, see Troy Leiland Sagrillo, “Šîšaq’s Army: 2 Chronicles 12:2–3 from an Egyptological Perspective,” in Gershon Galil, Ayelet Gilboa, Aren M. Maeir and Dan’el Kahn, eds., The Ancient Near East in the 12th–10th Centuries BCE: Culture and History (Münster: Ugarit-Verlag, 2012), pp. 425–450.


Kenneth A. Kitchen, On the Reliability of the Old Testament (Grand Rapids, MI: Eerdmans, 2003), p. 33.


Anson F. Rainey and R. Steven Notley, The Sacred Bridge (Jerusalem: Carta, 2006), p. 185.


Kitchen, On the Reliability of the Old Testament, p. 10.


Additionally, seven of the names in the lower registry seem to contain a word that could be transcribed as hagar, haqal or hasar, meaning either “fort,” “field” or “enclosure.” See Yigal Levin, “Sheshonq I and the Negev Ḥaṣerim,” Maarav 17, no. 2 (2010), forthcoming.


Archaeologist Thomas Levy reports to have found scarabs and other Egyptian artifacts dating to the time of Sheshonq at the copper mining site of Khirbat en-Nahas, about 45 miles southeast of Arad in modern Jordan. See Robert Draper, “Kings of Controversy,” National Geographic, December 2010, p. 84.