See Ehud Netzer, “The Last Days and Hours at Masada,” BAR 17:06; and Jodi Magness, “Masada—Arms and the Man,” BAR 18:04.



William Flinders Petrie, Methods and Aims in Archaeology (London: Macmillan, 1904), p. 21.


Petrie, Seventy Years in Archaeology (London: Sampson Low, Marston, 1931), pp. 114–116.


Petrie, Methods and Aims, pp. 20–21.


Petrie, Methods and Aims, p. 29.


Petrie, Tell el Hesy (Lachish) (London: Alexandria P. Watt, 1891), p. 11.


Petrie, Methods and Aims, p. 28.


The method is named after George A. Reisner, who began his archaeological career in Egypt in 1897, and C. S. Fisher, with whom Reisner further refined his methods at Samaria from 1908–1911. See Robert M. Little, “George Andrew Reisner and His Contemporaries,” in The Archaeology of Jordan and Other Studies, ed. Lawrence T. Geraty and Larry G. Herr (Berrien Springs, MI: Andrews Univ. Press, 1986), pp. 183–204; Philip J. King, American Archaeology in the Mideast: A History of the American Schools of Oriental Research (Philadelphia: American Schools of Oriental Research, 1983), pp. 39–41, 75–82. For a description of the method as first practiced, see William F. Badè, A Manual of Excavation in the Near East: Methods of Digging and Recording of the Tell en-Nasbeh Expedition in Palestine (Berkeley: Univ. of California Press, 1934).


Badè, Manual of Excavation, pp. 12, 52–53.


William F. Albright, “Some Archaeological and Topographical Results of a Trip Through Palestine,” Bulletin of the American Schools of Oriental Research (BASOR) 11 (Oct. 1923), pp. 3–14; Albright, “Report of the Director of the School in Jerusalem 1922–23,” BASOR 12 (Dec. 1923), pp. 13–15.


Albright, “The Excavations of Tell Beit Mirsim,” Annual of the American Schools of Oriental Research 17 (1936–1937), pp. 10–11.


Kathleen M. Kenyon et al, Excavations at Jericho, 5 vols. (London: British School of Archaeology in Jerusalem, 1960–1983). For a popular account, see Kenyon’s Digging Up Jericho: The Results of the Jericho Excavations 1952–1956 (New York: Frederick A. Praeger, 1961).


A detailed description of the Wheeler-Kenyon method may be found in her book Beginning in Archaeology, rev. ed. (New York: Frederick A. Praeger, 1961).


Kenyon, Beginning in Archaeology, p. 65.


Philip J. King, “The Influence of G. Ernest Wright on the Archaeology of Palestine,” in Archaeology and Biblical Interpretation, ed. Leo G. Perdue, Lawrence E. Toombs and Gary L. Johnson (Atlanta: John Knox, 1987), pp. 19–20.


King, “Influence of G. Ernest Wright,” p. 20.


Neil Asher Silberman, A Prophet from Amongst You—The Life of Yigael Yadin: Soldier, Scholar, and Mythmaker of Modern Israel (New York: Addison-Wesley, 1993), p. 265.


Yigael Yadin, Masada: Herod’s Fortress and the Zealot’s Last Stand (New York: Random House, 1966), pp. 13–14.


Yadin, Masada, p. 261.


William G. Dever et al., Gezer II: Report of the 1967–70 Seasons in Fields I and II, vol. 2 (Jerusalem: Hebrew Union College, 1974), p. 1; Dever, Recent Archaeological Discoveries and Biblical Research (Seattle: Univ. of Washington Press, 1990), pp. 27–28.


William G. Dever, H. Darrell Lance, G. Ernest Wright, Gezer I: Preliminary Report of the 1964–66 Seasons, vol. 1 (Jerusalem: Hebrew Union College, 1970), pp. 7–9.


Dever, Recent Archaeological Discoveries, pp. 27–28.