B.C.E. (Before the Common Era) and C.E. (Common Era) are the religiously neutral terms used by scholars, corresponding to B.C. and A.D.


An ashlar is a worked stone block in a rectangular shape. See “Glossary: Stones in Many Shapes and Sizes,” BAR 15:04.


A bekah equals half a shekel (Exodus 38:26).



Bustanay Oded, “Neighbors on the West,” in The World History of the Jewish People (WHJP), vol. 4.1, ed. Abraham Malamat (Jerusalem: Massada, 1979), p. 236.


Yohanan Aharoni, The Land of the Bible: A Historical Geography (Philadelphia: Westminster, 1979), pp. 307, 325, 342, 345.


James B. Pritchard, ed. Ancient Near Eastern Texts Relating to the Old Testament, (ANET) (Princeton, NJ: Princeton Univ., 3rd ed., 1969), pp. 287–288.


Hayim Tadmor, “Philistia Under Assyrian Rule,” Biblical Archaeologist (BA) 29 (1966), pp. 88–97.


The main elements of the fortifications were first identified by Joseph Naveh in his 1957 survey, “Khirbet al Muganna-Ekron,” Israel Exploration Journal 8 (1958), pp. 91–95.


William G. Dever et al, “Further Excavations at Gezer, 1967–1971,” BA 34 (1971), pp. 112–118; David Ussishkin, “Excavations at Tel Lachish—1973–1977,” Tel Aviv 5 (1978), pp. 55–59; Moshe Dothan and Yosef Porath, Ashdod IV: Excavation of Area M, Atiqot 15 (1982), pp. 54–55.


Seymour Gitin, “Tel Miqne-Ekron in the 7th c. BC: City Plan Development and the Oil Industry,” in Olive Oil in Antiquity (Oxford British Archaeological Reports, International Series, in press).


David Eitam, “Tel Miqne-Ekron—Survey of Oil Presses—1985,” Excavations and Surveys in Israel 1986, vol. 5 (1987), pp. 72–74 (English edition of Hadashot Arkheologiyot, Archaeological Newsletter of the Israel Department of Antiquities and Museums 88:20–21).


Eitam and Amir Shomroni, “Research of the Oil Industry During the Iron Age at Tel Miqne,” in Olive Oil in Antiquity (in press).


Israel Eph’al, “Assyrian Dominion in Palestine,” in Malamat, WHJP, vol. 4.1, pp. 286–287.


Pritchard, ANET, p. 288; Nadav Na’aman, “Sennacherib’s ‘Letter to God’ on his Campaign to Judah,” Bulletin of the American Schools of Oriental Research (BASOR) 214 (1974), p. 35.


Gitin, A Ceramic Typology of the Late Iron II, Persian and Hellenistic Periods at Tell Gezer: Text & Data Records, Plates and Plans, Annual of the Nelson Glueck School of Biblical Archaeology III (Jerusalem: Hebrew Union College, in press); Ussishkin, “Excavations at Lachish 1978–1983: Second Preliminary Report,” Tel Aviv 10 (1983), p. 133.


Gitin, “Incense Altars from Ekron, Israel and Judah: Context and Typology,” Eretz Israel 20, Yadin Memorial Volume Jerusalem: Israel Exploration Society, 1989), p. 63.


Vassos Karageorghis, “The Sacred Area of Kition,” pp. 82–88, and Trude Dothan, “The High Place of Athienou in Cyprus,” pp. 92–92 in Temples and High Places in Biblical Times, ed. Avraham Biran (Jerusalem: Hebrew Union College, 1981).


Lawrence E. Stager and Samuel R. Wolff, “Production and Commerce in Temple Courtyards An Olive Press in the Sacred Precinct at Tel Dan,” BASOR 243 (1981), pp. 95–102.


Yehuda Karmon, Israel: A Regional Geography (London: John Wiley & Sons, 1971), pp. 8–9, 245.


George Kelm and Amihai Mazar, “Tel Batash (Timnah) Excavations,” BASOR Supplement 1985, p. 117.


Bt, indicating volume; dbl, possibly referring to figs; l’ashrat, relating to cultic activity; kodesh, possibly an epithet for Asherah; and the words l’ashrat and kodesh found on the same storejar.


Tadmor, “Philistia Under Assyrian Rule.”


Malamat, “The Last Years of the Kingdom of Judah,” in Malamat, WHJP, vol. 4.1, p. 209.


These forms include, for example, the Ein Gedi V metallic ware and the Mesad Hashavyahu-type cooking pots, the flat-based mortarium (shaped like a large mixing bowl), the balloon bottle and the East Greek skyphos.


Ruth Amiran and Immanuel Dunayevsky, “The Assyrian Open-Court Building and Its Palestinian Derivatives,” BASOR 149 (1958), pp. 25–32.


In addition, cultic elements like the painted chalices belong to the coastal tradition. Of special importance are the four-horned incense altars which are peculiar to Ekron in the seventh century B.C.E.


For a summary of the excavation results through the 1986 season, see Gitin and T. Dothan “The Rise and Fall of Ekron of the Philistines,” BA 50:4 (1987), pp. 197–222. Note the bibliography of Miqne publications on pp. 213, 215, 217. For a summary through the 1987 season, see T. Dothan, “The Arrival of the Sea Peoples: Cultural Diversity in Early Iron Age Canaan,” pp. 1–22, and Gitin “Tel Miqne-Ekron: A Type-Site for the Inner Coastal Plain in the Iron Age II Period,” pp. 23–58 and figs. 15–22, in Recent Excavations in Israel: Studies in Iron Age Archaeology, Annual of American Schools of Oriental Research (ASOR) 49, ed. Gitin and Dever (Winona Lake, IN: Eisenbrauns, 1989). Note the bibliography of publications on pp. 55–56.