See Excavations at Athienou, Cyprus, 1971–1972, by Trude Dothan and Amnon Ben-Tor, reviewed in Books in Brief, BAR 11:01; Dothan, The Philistines and Their Material Culture, reviewed in Books in Brief, BAR 08:04; and Dothan, “What We Know About the Philistines,” BAR 08:04.


B.C.E. (Before the Common Era) and C.E. (Common Era) are the religiously neutral terms used by scholars, corresponding to B.C. and A.D.


A tell is an artificial mound formed by accumulated remains. “Tel” is the spelling used with Hebrew site names; “Tell” is the spelling used with Arabic site names.


A wadi (nahal in Hebrew) is a dry river bed intermittently filled in winter by rainfall.



In establishing the joint relationship between the Albright, ASOR and the Hebrew University, we were fortunate to have the support and encouragement of the institutions’ officers: ASOR president Philip King, ASOR vice-president Edward Campbell, Albright president Ernest Frerichs, Hebrew University president Abraham Harman and the Hebrew University Institute of Archaeology director Yosef Aviram. Without their help we would not have been able to initiate the project. In addition, we organized a consortium of North American and Israeli institutes, universities, colleges, seminaries and museums to support the project. Ernest Frerichs, also director of the Program of Judaic Studies at Brown University, served as director of the Miqne-Ekron Consortium and the student volunteer program. Consortium institutions have included: sponsors—Brandeis University, Boston College, Brown University, the Lehigh Valley Center for Jewish Studies (Allentown College of St. Francis de Sales, Cedar Crest College, Lafayette College, Lehigh University, Moravian College, Muhlenberg College), Southeastern Baptist Theological Seminary and the Universities of Lethbridge and Toronto; supporting institutions—Aurora University, Baltimore Hebrew University, the Israel Oil Industry Museum, the Harvard Semitic Museum and the University of Arizona. We have also received support from the National Geographic Society, as well as from other sources, such as the family foundations of Philip and Muriel Berman, Richard Scheuer, Eugene and Emily Grant, and Estanne Abraham. Major grant support was obtained from the Dorot Foundation.

If our project has been successful, it has been more than partially due to the dedicated and professional work of our staff, especially our core staff: field supervisors Ann Killebrew (Hebrew University), Barry Gittlen (Baltimore Hebrew University) and Yossi Garfinkel (Hebrew University), the coordinator of the Environmental Research Program, Arlene Rosen (Weizmann Institute of Science, Rehovot, Israel); and zooarchaeologists Brian Hesse (University of Alabama at Birmingham) and Paula Wapnish (Smithsonian Institution); Oil Industry Survey, David Eitam (Israel Oil Industry Museum) and Natan Aidlin (Kibbutz Revadim); architects David Hully and Erez Cohen (Jerusalem); photographers Douglas Guthrie (Islamic Museum) and llan Sztulman (Israel Department of Antiquities); computer data manager Walter Auirecht (University of Lethbridge); conservators Dina Castel and Moshe Ben Ari (Jerusalem) and Anthony Read (University College, Cardiff); and cartographer Sarah Heilbrecht (Jerusalem).


The volunteers for these pilot excavations came from the field project of the Brandeis University/ASOR Archaeological Program in Israel.


Yohanan Aharoni, The Archaeology of the Land of the Bible (Philadelphia: Westminster, 1982), p. 182.


This part of the project was accomplished only with the generous support of Joy Ungerleider-Mayerson, president of the Dorot Foundation. The Dorot Camp has proved to be one of the major factors in the project’s success.


William F. Albright, “Researches of the School in Western Judea,” Bulletin of the American Schools of Oriental Research (BASOR) 15 (1924), p. 8; “The Fall Trip of the School in Jerusalem to Gaza and Back,” BASOR 17 (1925), pp. 5–6.


Z. Kallai-Kleinmann, “Notes on Eltekeh, Ekron and Timnah,” Bulletin of the Israel Exploration Society 17 (1952), pp. 62–64 (in Hebrew).


Joseph Naveh, “Khirbet al-Muqanna-Ekron,” Israel Exploration Journal (IEJ) 8 (1958), pp. 87–100, 165–70.


Concurrently, Benjamin Mazar’s identification of Eltekeh with Tel esh-Shalaf, based on the survey of that site by Jacob Kaplan, has reinforced the Miqne-Ekron identification. See Mazar, “The Cities of the Territory of Dan,” IEJ 10 (1960), pp. 65–77.


Paul Emile Botta and Eugene Napoleon Flandin, Monument de Ninive: Inscriptions, vol. 4 (Paris: Imprimiere National, 1849); Hayim Tadmor, “The Campaigns of Sargon II of Assur,” Journal of Cuneiform Studies 12 (1958), p. 83.


James B. Pritchard, ed., Ancient Near Eastern Texts Relating to the Old Testament (ANET) (Princeton, NJ): Princeton Univ., 3rd ed., 1969), p. 288.


In the first half of the seventh century B.C.E., the annals mention Esarhaddon calling upon Ikausu, king of Ekron, together with his other vassals, to provide building materials and their transport to construct Esarhaddon’s palace in Nineveh (Pritchard, ANET, p. 288). In 667 B.C.E., the annals report that Ashurbanipal required his vassal Ikausu, king of Ekron, among others, to support his military campaign against Egypt and Ethiopia (Pritchard, ANET, p. 294).


Bezalel Porten, “The Identity of King Adon,” Biblical Archaeologist 44 (1981), pp. 41–45.


Abraham Malamat, “The Last Years of the Kingdom of Judah,” in The World History of the Jewish People, vol. 4.1, ed. Abraham Malamat (Jerusalem: Massada, 1979), p. 209.


Eusebius, Onomasticon, ed. Klostermann, p. 71, 11.6–7; p. 22, 11.910.


For a full treatment of Anatolian Grey Polished Ware, see H.G. Bucholz, “Grey Trojan Ware in Cyprus and Northern Syria,” in Bronze Age Migrations in the Aegean; Archaeological and Linguistic Problems in Greek Prehistory (Proceedings of the First International Colloquium on Aegean Prehistory, Sheffield, UK, 1970), ed. R.A. Crossland and A. Birchall (Park Ridge, N}: Noyes Press, 1974), pp. 179–187.