Other methods, such as basing an estimate on the water availability, are even more unreliable. See J. Wilkinson, “Ancient Jerusalem, Its Water Supply and Population”, Palestine Exploration Quarterly 106 (1974), pp. 33–51. I cannot accept some of the author’s conclusions because they are based on assumptions which cannot be proven or disproven; for example, his assumption that an aqueduct led water to the city from ‘Ein ‘Etam during the First Commonwealth, or the arbitrary consumption figure of 20 liters per person per day. Nevertheless, Wilkinson’s study is a valuable one.


H. Frankfort, Town Planning Review 21 (1950), pp. 103–104.


J. Garstang, Joshua–Judges, London 1931, pp. 121, 165.


J. E. Packer, Journal of Roman Studies 57 (1967), pp. 80–89.


Cf. Frankfort, Town Planning Review.


Cf. Wilkinson, “Ancient Jerusalem,” p. 50. The built up area does not include the Temple Mount which is not inhabited. This is of course an average.


J. Gulick, Tripoli, A Modern Arab City, Cambridge, Mass. 1967, p. 190.




Miss Kenyon claims that the city’s area at this period was 10.87 acres, which is a too precise figure. See K. M. Kenyon, Jerusalem, London 1967, p. 30. In her new book (Digging Up Jerusalem, London 1974) the area is not given.


B. Mazar in Y. Yadin (editor) Jerusalem Revealed, Jerusalem, 1975, pp. 39–40.


N. Avigad, in Y. Yadin (editor), Jerusalem Revealed, Jerusalem 1975. pp. 43–44; idem, Israel Exploration Journal 27 (1977), pp. 55–56.


Additional evidence for this western expansion comes from excavations on Mount Zion and in the Citadel. M. Broshi “The Growth of Jerusalem in the reigns of Hezekiah and Manasseh, The Archaeological evidence and the Historical Background,” Israel Exploration Journal 24 (1974), pp. 21–26. For evidence suggesting the existence of northern suburbs, see M. Broshi, “Evidence of Earliest Christian Pilgrimage to the Holy Land Comes to Light in Holy Sepulchre Church,” BAR 03:04.


M. Kochavi, Judea, Samaria and the Golan, Archaeological Survey 1967–1968, Jerusalem 1972, p. 20 (in Hebrew).


This rests on the interpretation of a difficult passage in Loeb Classical Library, Josephus VII, Jewish Antiquities, XIV, 16, 2, pp. 691f.


M. Avi-Yonah, “The Third and Second Walls of Jerusalem,” Israel Exploration Journal 18 (1968), pp. 98–125.


Sara Ben Arieh-E. Netzer “Excavations along the ‘Third Wall’ of Jerusalem,” 1972–1974, Israel Exploration Journal 24 (1974), pp. 97–107.


Cf. Avi-Yonah, ibidem and R. North, in Judah and Jerusalem (The Israel Exploration Society, the Twelfth Archaeological Convention) Jerusalem, 1957, pp. 63–64 (in Hebrew).


In this period, more than any other before or after—until the 20th century—a sizable part of the population lived outside the walls, but we have no means of assessing the number of extramural population. Our rather high estimate is corroborated by the lists of the Christians that were killed or taken prisoner during the Persian invasion in 614 A.D. Unfortunately, those lists, preserved in several languages and several versions suffer from copyists’ and translators’ errors and cannot provide definite numbers. Cf. J. T. Milik, “La tophographie de Jerusalem vers la fin de l’epoque Byzantine”, Melanges de l’universite St. Joseph 37 (1961), p. 133.