See Siegfried H. Horn, “Why the Moabite Stone Was Blown to Pieces,” BAR 12:03.


The British representative was Captain Charles Warren, an engineer who surveyed the Holy Land on behalf of the Palestine Exploration Fund. The Germans were represented by the Prussian consul J. Heinrich Petermann. Whether Shapira was also involved in the German negotiations is not known.


Another story is recounted in Horn, “Moabite Stone.”


The remainder of the text has been reconstructed from a squeeze, unfortunately itself in seven pieces, made for Clermont-Ganneau by a certain Ya’qub Karavaca (see Horn, “Moabite Stone”).


According to the documentary hypothesis, the first five books of the Bible (the Torah or Pentateuch) consist of at least four discrete textual strands, labeled with the letters J, E, P, D. In strand J, God is referred to as “Yahweh” (or “Jahweh” in German), while in E, God is referred to as “Elohim.” P, which stands for Priestly Code, makes up much of Leviticus, and D, or Deuteronomist, largely consists of the Book of Deuteronomy.


See Truly Fake: Moses Wilhelm Shapira, Master Forger (Jerusalem: The Israel Museum, 2000). The following description of the fakes is taken largely from the essay by Irit Salmon, “The Life and Times of Moses Wilhelm Shapira,” in the catalogue. Ms. Salmon, who was also the curator of the exhibition held in the summer of 2000 at Ticho House, in Jerusalem, has graciously reviewed the manuscript. The responsibility for all errors, of course, is the author’s.



Reprinted in the Palestine Exploration Fund Quarterly Statement, April 1874.


Palestine Exploration Fund Quarterly Statement, July 1873.


Claude R. Conder, Heth and Moab (London, 1892), p. 430.