Frank Hole, “Rediscovering the Past in the Present,” in Ethnoarchaeology, ed. Carol B. Kramer. (New York: Columbia Univ. Press, 1979), pp. 192–218; E. B. Banning, “Peasants, Pastoralists, and Pax Romana Mutualism in the Southern Highlands of Jordan,” Bulletin of the American Schools of Oriental Research (BASOR) 261 (1986), pp. 25–50, Y. Goren and I. Gilead, “Quaternary Environment and Man at Nahal Sekher, Northern Negev,” Mitekufat Haeven 19 (1986), pp. 66–79; Steven A. Rosen, “Byzantine Nomadism in the Negev: Results from the Emergency Survey,” Journal of Field Archaeology 14 (1987), pp. 29–42.


For example, much of the implicit reasoning behind the Amorite nomadic explanation for the end of the Early Bronze Age was based on the assumption that nomads leave few remains. The original apparent relative scarcity of sites following Early Bronze III was thus taken a priori as evidence of the nomadic character of the invaders.


Rudolph Cohen, “Solomon’s Negev Defense Line Contained Three Fewer Fortresses,” BAR 12:04; “The Iron Age Fortresses in the Central Negev,” BASOR 23 (1979), pp. 61–79; Israel Finkelstein, “The Iron Age Sites in the Negev Highlands—Military Fortresses or Nomads Settling Down?” BAR 12:04.


Fredrik Barth, Nomads of South Persia (Boston: Little Brown, 1961), p. 6; Patty J. Watson, Archaeological Ethnography in Western Iran (Tucson: Univ. of Arizona, 1979), pp. 247–252; Douglas Johnson, The Nature of Nomadism (Chicago: Univ. of Chicago, 1969), pp. 40–46; Ofer Bar-Yosef, “Early Nomads in Southern Sinai,” National Geographic Research Reports—1976 Projects (1983), pp. 147–159.


Emanuel Marx, “Ecology and Politics of Middle Eastern Pastoralists,” in The Nomadic Alternative, ed. Wolfgang Weisslander (The Hague: Mouton, 1978), pp. 41–74; Dan P. Cole, Nomads of the Nomads (Arlington Heights, Il.: Harlan Davidson 1975), pp. 25–53; Roy H. Behnke The Herders of Cyrenaica (Urbana: Univ. of Illinois, 1980), pp. 74–92.


Amnon Cohen, Palestine in the 18th Century (Jerusalem: Magnes Press, 1973), pp. 90–92, 104–110.


Barth, Nomads of South Persia, pp. 109–111, 116–121, Marx, “Ecology and Politics,” pp. 41–74; Avshalom Shmueli, “Two Faces to the Village of Sa’ir,” in The End of Nomadism, ed. Shmueli (Jerusalem: Reshefim, 1980), pp. 13–25 (in Hebrew).


Finkelstein, “The Iron Age Sites,” p. 51; “The Iron Age Fortresses of the Negev Highlands—Sedentarization of Desert Nomads,” Tel Aviv 11 (1984), pp. 189–209.


Rosen “Byzantine Nomadism;” “Demographic Trends in the Negev Highlands: Preliminary Results from the Emergency Survey,” BASOR (in press).


Rosen, “Byzantine Nomadism.”


Finkelstein, “The Iron Age Fortresses.”


Cf. Bar-Yosef and J. Phillips, Prehistoric Investigations in Gabel Maghara, Northern Sinai, Qedem 7: Monographs of the Institute of Archaeology (Jerusalem: Hebrew University, 1977); Anthony E. Marks, ed. Prehistory and Paleoenvironments in the Central Negev, Israel, vols. I, II and III, (Dallas: Southern Methodist University Press, 1976, 1977, 1982); Bar-Yosef, and Naama Goren, “Afterthoughts Following Prehistoric Surveys in the Levant,” Israel Exploration Journal 30 (1980), 1–16.


M. Haiman, “Tumulus Fields on the Western Periphery of the Negev Highlands,” Paper presented at the 10th Archaeological Congress in Israel (Jerusalem, 1982), Itzhak Beit-Arieh and Ram Gophna, “Early Bronze Age II Sites in Wadi el Qudeirat,” Tel Aviv 3 (1976), pp. 142–150; U. Avner, “Biqat Uvda Survey,” Hadashot Arkheologiyot 78–79 (1982), pp. 93–95 (in Hebrew).


Beit-Arieh, “Two Cultures in the Southern Sinai in the Third Millennium B.C.,” BASOR 263 (1986), pp. 27–54, makes an interesting case for two distinct settlement patterns in South Sinai in Early Bronze II, one essentially related to early copper trade, and the second to indigenous pastoralism. While essentially based on architectural criteria, it seems to reflect some real difference in cultural affinities. Most sites especially in the Negev Highlands, seem to reflect the indigenous pattern.


Cohen, “The Iron Age Fortresses”; Finkelstein, “The Iron Age Fortresses.”


M. B. Rowton, “Dimorphic Structure and the Parasocial Element,” Journal of Near Eastern Studies 36 (1977), pp. 181–198; “Autonomy and Nomadism in Western Asia,” Orientalia 42 (1973), pp. 247–58.