Until this structure is fully excavated, we can only tentatively identify it as a cistern, probably used to collect rainwater.



For a bibliography, see R. D. DePuma and J. P. Small, eds., Murlo and the Etruscans: Art and Society in Ancient Etruria (Madison, WI: Univ. of Wisconsin, 1994).


See Giovannangelo Camporeale, et. al., “Massa Marittima: Lago dell’Accesa,” in Giovannangelo Camporeale, ed., L’Etruria mineraria (Milan: Electa, 1985), pp. 126–178.


C. E. Östenberg, Case etrusche di Acquarossa (Rome: Multigrafica editrice, 1975).


Etruscan habitation sites in the area of Siena that are contemporaneous with La Piana, such as Cetamura (see Nancy de Grummond, “Excavations at Cetamura del Chianti, 1987–91,” Etruscan Studies 1 [1994], n. 2 and “Excavations at Cetamura del Chianti,” Il Chianti, Storia Arte Cultura Territorio 15 [1991], pp. 67–68), Orgia and Radda in Chianti (see Marzio Cresci and Luca Viviani, Lo scavo dell’insediamento fortifcato d’altura in località Poggio La Croce a Radda in Chianti [Siena, 1991] and “Defining an Economic Area of the Hellenistic Period in Inland Northern Etruria: The Excavation of a Fortified Hilltop Village at Poggio La Croce in Radda in Chianti—Siena,” Etruscan Studies 2 [1995], pp. 141–157), and tomb sites, such as Malignano (see Kyle M. Phillips, “Malignano,” Notizie degli scari di Sc [1965], pp. 11–29), Papena (see Kyle. M. Phillips, “Papena [Siena]. Sepultura tardo-etrusca,” Notizie degli scari di Sc 21 [1967], pp. 23–40), Strove (see D. W. Rupp, “The Necropolis of Strove: Preliminary Report of the 1967 and 1968 Campaigns,” Etruscans 1 (1967–69), pp. 27–39), and San Martino ai Colli (see Giuseppina C. Cianferoni, et. al., San Martino ai Colli, un centro rurale in Val d’Elsa [Rome: Edizioni Viscon Viella, 1984]), which hint at the presence of as yet undiscovered settlements, document this expansion.


The seed remains were analyzed by John Giorgi.


See B. B. Marchesini, “Tegole e Terrecotte architettoniche dal santuario di Apollo a Pyrgi,” a paper presented at the symposium Gli antichi tetti in terracotta e la raccolta delle acque piovane dal VII sec. a. C. al medioevo, held at Murlo, July 22, 1997; see also P. Gastaldi’s excavation of a smaller-scale cistern near Chiusi.


Vitruvius 6.3.1.


Marchesini, “Tegole e Terrecotte.”


Known examples, furthermore, come from rectangular roofs with rectangular compluvia, or openings; circular compluvia, or oculi, are hard to imagine at such an early date, although they occur at ground level as caps for cisterns of much smaller scale. See Claudio Bizzari, “Le emergenze archeologiche del sottosuolo orvietano. Il caso della cavità n. 779,” Bollettino dell’Istituto Storico Artistico Orvietano 154–155, 1988–89 (1992), pp. 195–212, esp. figs. 4 and 5; and Claudio Bizzari, “Orvieto ipogea: primo inquadramento tipologico delle principale emergenze storico-archeologiche,” in Bruno Cavallo, ed., Orvieto ipogea ovvero della proprietà del sottosuolo (Regione dell’Umbria Giunta Regionale: Assessorato dell’Area Ambiente e Infrastructture), pp. 49–61.


Maria Bonghi Jovino, ed., Gli Etruschi di Tarquinia (Modena: Panini, 1986), fig. 67.


See the typology defined at Orvieto by C. Bizzari, “Orvieto ipogea,” Bollettino dell’Istituto Storico Artistico Orvietano 154–155, 1988–89 (1992), n. 16.


These bones were identified and catalogued by Karena Brown of Western Michigan University.


G. Fougères, in Daremberg-Saglio Theodore, funda and glans.


For full detail see Prof. Theodore Peña’s analysis, cited in Jane Whitehead, “Survey and Excavations of the Etruscan Foundation, 1989–91: La Piana, Mocali, and Ripostena,” Etruscan Studies 1 (1994), pp. 123–125.


For a good bibliography of these weapons, see Clive Foss, “A Bullet of Tissaphernes,” Journal of Hellenic Studies 95 (1975), pp. 25–30.


As did the army of Augustus during the siege of Perugia in 41–40 B.C.: J.P. Hallett, “Perusine Glandes and the Changing Image of Augustus,” American Journal of Ancient History 2 (1977), pp. 151–171.


Both William Metcalf and Paolo Visonà have made this suggestion. They based their conclusion on drawings and photographs alone, however, so it remains tentative. I thank them both for lending their expertise.


Polybius 2.28.2–8.


Stephen Dyson, The Creation of the Roman Frontier (Princeton, NJ: Princeton Univ. Press, 1985), p. 30.


F. H. Pairault-Massa, “Talamone,” I Galli e l’Italia (Rome, 1978), pp. 207–20.