THE AMMAN CITADEL. The immense archaeological mound in the middle of modern Amman, Jordan, has yielded impressive ruins from a variety of historical periods. This view from the southeast foregrounds the mound’s middle and lower terraces, where excavations revealed the remains of massive fortifications and a palace dating to the time of the Ammonite kings. Also visible are the distinctive columns of the so-called “Temple of Hercules” from the Roman period (far left of photo), beneath which are the foundations of an earlier temple to the Ammonite god Milkom. The upper terrace (upper left) is dominated by an extensive palace and administrative complex dated to the early Islamic period (seventh–eighth centuries CE).