Joshua 11 describes how Joshua smashed a Canaanite league headed by Jabin, King of Hazor; Joshua then captured Hazor, smote its King, and burned the city.—Ed.


For full references, see my Schweich Lectures, Hazor, p. 11, n. 3.


Nevertheless four points should be commented upon:

(a) An argument such as: “I do not believe the development I have just described could have occurred in less than 100 years” (p. 26) is surely not scientific. Why 100? Why not 80 or 70?

(b) It is interesting to note that the recent trend among serious Biblical historians, far from accepting the view that Deborah lived in the 13th century, is to “push” her into the 11th century. I think that the second half of the 12th century, as originally suggested by Albright, is still the most plausible date.

(c) Aharoni’s statement on the destruction of Canaanite Megiddo is misleading: “Thus the destruction of Megiddo about 1125 B.C., instead of fixing the earliest possible date for the battle of Deborah, fixes the latest possible date, for after that date both Megiddo and Taanach were in ruins” (emphasis supplied). Surely BAR readers should have been informed that after Megiddo stratum VIIA, there were found there two additional strata, VIB and VIA, respectively. The latter was a flourishing and prosperous city. It is true that Aharoni believes that the city of stratum VIA was Israelite, but this represents a minority view. Many archaeologists (including the present writer) are convinced that these two strata represent non-Israelite cities, to judge by their material culture. The most penetrating study concerning their ethnic nature was made recently by Professor Mazar, who, I believe, has shown conclusively that Megiddo VIA in the 11th century B.C. was a Philistine-Canaanite city (see his article, “The ‘Orpheus Jug’ from Megiddo,” in his Canaan and Israel, Historical Essays (Hebrew), Jerusalem 1974, pp. 174ff.). Thus, Megiddo was in ruins between VIIA and VIB and between VIB and VIA.

(d) Irrespective of all the above mentioned archaeological data concerning Megiddo, one should always remember that Albright’s view, that Megiddo was in ruins at the time of Deborah, is just an assumption, logical as it may be.