The Testament of Levi is the third of the Testament of the Twelve Patriarchs.



For a discussion of the possible connections between this passage and the tearing of the heavens in Mark. with references to earlier scholarship, see Fritzleo Lentzen-Deis, Die Taufe Jesu nach den Synoptikern (Franfurt, Germ.:Joseph Knecht, 1970), pp. 100–103.


See Howard Kee, Community of the New Age: Studies in Mark’s Gospel (Macon, GA: Mercer Univ. Press, 1983): pp. 46–47.


For a discussion of the possible relationship between Ezekiel 1:1 and Mark’s baptism account, see Lentzen-Deis, Die Taufe Jesu, pp. 107–109.


For earlier scholarship suggesting a link between Ezekiel and the title “Son of Man” in the Gospels, see Bruce Vawter, “Ezekiel and John,” Catholic Bible Quarterly 26 (1964), pp. 451–453.


See S. Motyer, “The Rending of the Veil: A Markan Pentecost,” New Testament Studies (NTS) 33 (1987), pp. 155–157. See also Elizabeth Malbon, Narrative Space and Mythic Meaning in Mark (San Francisco: Harper & Row, 1986), p. 187, n. 93; Howard Jackson, “The Death of Jesus in Mark, and the Miracle of the Cross,” NTS 33 (1987), pp. 23, 27, 31. For earlier scholars who suggested at least tentatively the possibility of a link between the tearing of the heavens and the tearing of the Temple veil, see the references in Jackson, “Death of Jesus”, p. 36, n. 22. For an argument against there being a connection between Mark 1:10 and Mark 15:38, with additional references to earlier scholarship, see Lentzen-Deis, Die Taufe Jesu, pp. 280–281.


On this last point, see Jackson, “Death of Jesus,” pp. 16–37


For additional references to the heavenly temple, see Psalm 150:1–2; Revelation 14:17, 15:5; Hebrews 8:1–2, 9:24; The Testament of Levi 3:4, 5:1; Philo, On the Creation 18.55, On the Special Laws 1.12.66–67; Cicero, Dream of Scipio 6.17. The concept of the heavenly temple is pervasive in Jewish apocalyptic literature. As Martha Himmelfarb notes, “All me later ascent apocalypses (2 Enoch, The Similitudes of Enoch, the Apocalypse of Abraham, the Testament of Levi, the Ascension of Isaiah, 3 Baruch, the of Apocalypse of Zephaniah) understand heaven as a temple either explicitly or implicitly” (“Apocalyptic Ascent and the Heavenly Temple,” Society of Biblical Literature Seminar Papers 1987 [Atlanta: Scholars Press], p. 212).


For references to the scholarship on the question of which veil Mark had in mind, see Jackson, “Death of Jesus,” p. 36, n. 23.


For this view, see especially Jackson, “Death of Jesus,” pp. 22–24.


Transl. H. St.J. Thackeray, Loeb Classical Library (Cambridge, MA: Harvard Univ. Press, 1979), vol. 3, p. 265. Josephus goes on to note that me “signs of the zodiac” were excluded from the curtain’s astral imagery, presumably to avoid any implications of astrology. For a full discussion of Josephus’ description of the Temple veil, see André Pelletier, “La tradition synoptique du ‘voile déchiré à la lumière des réalites archéologiques,” Recherches de Science Religieuse 46 (1958), pp. 168ff.