Zeev Weiss, “The Sepphoris Synagogue Mosaic,” BAR 26:05.


Such pavements have been found in synagogues at Hammath Tiberias, Khirbet Susiya, Na’aran, Husifa, Yafia, Beit Alpha and Sepphoris. The zodiac also appears to have been represented in the pavement of the Samaritan synagogue at Beth Shean.


A genizah is a repository in a synagogue for worn-out holy texts. The most famous genizah is the Cairo Genizah, which contained about 140,000 manuscripts, secular as well as holy. See Raphael Levy, “First ‘Dead Sea Scroll’ Found in Egypt Fifty Years Before Qumran Discoveries,” BAR 08:05.


See Frank Moore Cross, “King Hezekiah’s Seal Bears Phoenician Imagery,” BAR 25:02.


Morton Smith, “The Case of the Gilded Staircase,” BAR 10:05.



For the Avenches pavement, see Victorine von Gonzenbach, Die römischen Mosaiken der Schweiz (Basel: Birkhauser, 1961), p. 43ff.; for the Bingen pavement, see Klaus Parlasca, Die römischen Mosaiken in Deutschland (Berlin: De Gruyter, 1959), p. 86ff., no. 127; for the Sparta mosaic, see Archaeological Reports for 1983–84 30 (1984), p. 27.


Micheal L. Klein, Genizah Manuscripts of Palestinian Targum to the Pentateuch, 2 vols. (Cincinnati: Hebrew Union College Press, 1986), vol. 1, p. 192.


J. Yohalom, “Piyyut as Poetry,” The Synagogue in Late Antiquity, ed. Lee I. Levine (Philadelphia: American Schools of Oriental Research, 1987), p. 119f.


Kathleen Kenyon, Digging up Jerusalem (New York: Praeger, 1974), p. 142.


Erwin R. Goodenough, Jewish Symbols in the Greco-Roman Period, 13 vols. (New York: Pantheon, 1953), vol. 2, pp. 258f., and vol. 3, pp. 1116–1117; Campbell Bonner, Studies in Magical Amulets, Chiefly Graeco-Egyptian (Ann Arbor: Univ. of Michigan Press, 1950), p. 148ff., 291, n. 227.


Clement of Alexandria, Stromata, 6.5.41, The Ante-Nicene Christian Library, vol. 12, ed. Alexander Roberts and James Donaldson, Clement of Alexandria, vol. 2, 327; Marcel Simon, “Remarques sur l’angélolatrie Juive au debut de l’ère Chrétienne,” Comptes Rendus de des Academie Inscriptions et belles lettres (1971), pp. 120–134; Morton Smith, “Helios in Palestine,” Eretz Israel 22 (1982), p. 207ff.


Origen, Contra Celsius 1.26, 5.6; Theodore Reinach, Textes d’Auteurs Grecs et Romains Relatifs au Judaisme (Paris: Leroux, 1895), pp. 165–167; Simon, Verus Israel (Oxford: Oxford Univ. Press, 1986), p. 403.


Josephus, Antiquities of the Jews, 3.185–186; cf. a similar passage in Philo, Questions and Answers on Exodus, II, 109, trans. R. Marcus, Loeb Classical Library, suppl. 2 (Cambridge, MA, 1970), p. 158.


Michael A. Morgan, Sepher ha-Razim (Chico, CA: Scholars Press, 1983), p. 71.


To the same effect: Smith, “Goodenough’s Jewish Symbols in Retrospect,” Journal of Biblical Literature 86, p. 61.


Morgan, Sepher ha-Razim, p. 83.