B.C.E. and C.E. are the scholarly, religiously neutral designations corresponding to B.C. and A.D. They stand for “Before the Common Era” and “Common Era.”


The juglet will go on display at the Israel Museum in Jerusalem, beginning in November 1989, as part of a major exhibit. “Perfumery and Perfumes of Ancient Times.”



This research has been conducted on behalf of the Institute of Archaeology of the Hebrew University in Jerusalem. Professor Yigael Yadin collaborated on this research until his untimely death in 1984. Since then a steering committee composed of Professors Benjamin Mazar, Nahman Avigad and Joseph Naveh has assisted the chief investigator, Joseph Patrich. The survey team included Beny Arubas, Shmuel Grasiani, Eyal Naor, Hanina Kali and Beny Agur. Our thanks to the Dead Sea Works; to Micha Bar-On, director of Hebrew University’s Institute of Archaeology; and for financial support to Israel Ministry of Sciences, Israel Academy of Sciences and Humanities, Yad Izhak Ben Zvi, Fellner Foundation and Memorial Foundation for Jewish Culture.


Ofer Bar Yosef, A Cave in the Desert: Nahal Hemar—9000 Year Old Finds (Jerusalem: Israel Museum Catalog 258, 1985).


Pesach Bar-Adon, The Cave of the Treasure (Jerusalem: Israel Exploration Society, 1980).


Paul W. Lapp, “Bedouin Find Papyri Three Centuries Older than Dead Sea Scrolls,” BAR 04:01, and Frank M. Cross, “The Historical Importance of the Samaria Papyri,” BAR 04:01; both adapted from P. Lapp and N. L. Lapp, “Discoveries in the Wadi Ed-Daliyeh,” Bulletin of the American Schools of Oriental Research 41 (1974).


For a detailed summary of these finds see Geza Vermes, The Dead Sea Scrolls—Qumran in Perspective (London: Collins, 1977). Hershel Shanks addresses the publication of the scrolls in “What Should Be Done About the Unpublished Dead Sea Scrolls?” in this issue; “Israel’s Department of Antiquities Joins Conspiracy to Keep Dead Sea Scrolls Secret,” BAR 15:04; and in “At Least Publish the Dead Sea Scrolls Timetable!” BAR 15:03.


In this group, we also include some caves from Wadi el-Habibi, a northern tributary of Nahal Mikhmas. See Patrich, Beny Arubas and Eyal Naor, “Jewish Caves of Refuge in the Cliffs of Nahal Mikhmas,” Qadmoniot XIX (73–74) (1986), pp. 45–50 (in Hebrew).


Scholars disagree over the identification of this site. Samuel Klein and Michael Avi-Yonah thought that the designation was Ein Fara, but this conclusion must be dismissed because of topographical considerations. It is also not strictly apparent from the text. For a summary of the various opinions in the literature, and for the suggestion of Khirbet Ein Eina in Samaria (reference point 179.165), see C. Möller and G. Schmitt, Siedlungen Palästinas nach Flavius Josephus (Weisbaden: Reichart, 1976).


See Möller and Schmitt, Siedlungen Palästinas, p. 188, for other identifications.