Excavations on the island of Crete have uncovered inscriptions in three different scripts: (1) a hieroglyphic script, which has not been deciphered; (2) a Linear A script, which has been deciphered by Cyrus H. Gordon as a northwest Semitic language (this decipherment has not been widely accepted); and (3) the so-called Linear B script, which, as the British architect Michael Ventris demonstrated, recorded the Mycenaean Greek language. Linear B tablets have also been found in large numbers on the Greek mainland; they are generally stock inventories.


See Robert H. Tykot, “Villages of Stone,” Archaeology Odyssey 06:02.


See Dorit Symington, “Recovered!” Archaeology Odyssey 02:04.



William G. Dever, What Did the Biblical Writers Know and When Did They Know It? (Grand Rapids, MI: Eerdmans, 2001), pp. 278–279.


Moses I. Finley, “The Trojan War,” Journal of Hellenic Studies 84 (1964), pp. 1–9.


Moses I. Finley, Early Greece: The Bronze and Archaic Ages (New York: W.W. Norton, 1970), pp. 82–84.


Moses I. Finley, The World of Odysseus (New York: Viking, 1965). See also Geoffrey Stephen Kirk, The Homeric Poems as History (Cambridge, UK: Cambridge Univ. Press, 1964).


Hilda Lockhart Lorimer, Homer and the Monuments (London: Macmillan, 1950). No archaeological activity occurred during World War II, so Lorimer’s work is basically a summary of information gathered before 1940.


Lorimer, Homer and the Monuments, p. 507.


All names from and citations of Homer’s epics are from Richmond Lattimore, trans., The Iliad of Homer (Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1951) and The Odyssey of Homer (New York: Harper & Row, 1967).


Lorimer, Homer and the Monuments, p. 250.


Anthony M. Snodgrass, “An Historical Homeric Society?” Journal of Hellenic Studies 94 (1974), p. 122.


Cynthia W. Shelmerdine, “Shining and Fragrant Cloth in Homeric Epic,” in Jane B. Carter and Sarah P. Morris, eds., The Ages of Homer (Austin: University of Texas Press, 1995), p. 103.


Alan J.B. Wace, “Houses and Palaces,” in Wace and Frank H. Stubbings, eds., A Companion to Homer (New York: Macmillan, 1962), p. 490.


Oliver Dickinson, “Homer, the Poet of the Dark Age,” Greece and Rome 33 (1986), p. 29.


Paul MacKendrick, The Greek Stones Speak (New York: St. Martin’s Press, 1962), pp. 140–147.


R. Hope Simpson and John Francis Lazenby, The Catalogue of the Ships in Homer’s Iliad (Oxford: Clarendon, 1970), p. 154.


Denys L. Page, History and the Homeric Iliad (Berkeley: University of California Press, 1959), p. 121.


Cecil Maurice Bowra, On Greek Margins (Oxford: Clarendon, 1970), p. 10.


Michael Ventris and John Chadwick identify 58 such Homeric names (Documents in Mycenaean Greek [Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press, 1956], pp. 104–105).


D.H.F. Gray, “Mycenaean Names in Homer,” Journal of Hellenic Studies 78 (1958), p. 47.


Denys Page, History and the Homeric Iliad, chs. I and III; George L. Huxley, Achaeans and Hittites (Belfast: Queens Univ. Press, 1960); and John David Hawkins, “Tarkasnawa King of Mir ‘Tarkondemos,’ Bogazköy Sealings and Karabel,” Anatolian Studies 48 (1998), pp. 1–31. Eric Cline suggests that the Ahhiyawans’ support of Anatolian states that rebelled against Hittite rule may be reflected in the Iliad‘s references (e.g., 5.640–643) to earlier Greek expeditions in the Troad (“Achilles in Anatolia: Myth, History and the Assuwa Rebellion,” in Gordon D. Young, Mark W. Chavalas and Richard E. Averbeck, eds., Crossing Boundaries and Linking Horizons [Bethesda, MD: CDL Press, 1997], pp. 202–203).


Frank Moore Cross, “Early Alphabetic Scripts,” in F.M. Cross, ed., Symposia Celebrating the Seventy-Fifth Anniversary of the Founding of the American Schools of Oriental Research (1900–1975) (Cambridge, MA: American Schools of Oriental Research, 1979), pp. 103–105.


See, e.g., Benjamin F. Sass, The Genesis of the Alphabet and Its Development in the Second Millennium B.C. (Wiesbaden: Harrassowitz, 1988), pp. 91–93.


George F. Bass, Cape Gelidonya: A Bronze Age Shipwreck (Philadelphia: American Philosophical Society, 1967), p. 167, citing Wace and Stubbings, A Companion to Homer, p. 543.


Machteld J. Mellink, “Homer, Lycia, and Lukka,” in Carter and Morris, The Ages of Homer, p. 41.


Richard David Barnett, “Mopsos,” Journal of Hellenic Studies 73 (1953), pp. 140–143.


John K. Davies, “The Reliability of the Oral Tradition,” in L. Foxall and John K. Davies, eds., The Trojan War: Its Historicity and Context (London: Bristol Classical Press, 1984), p. 101.


Dever, What Did the Biblical Writers Know and When Did They Know It? p. 279.