André Lemaire, “The Universal God,BAR 31:06.



Laurie E. Pearce and Cornelia Wunsch, Documents of Judean Exiles and West Semites in Babylonia in the Collection of David Sofer, CUSAS 28 (Bethesda: CDL Press, 2014).


A.K. Grayson, Assyrian and Babylonian Chronicles (Winona Lake, IN: Eisenbrauns, 2000), p. 102.


E. Weidner, “Jojachin, König von Juda, in babylonischen Keilschrifttexten,” in Mélanges syriens offerts à M. René Dussaud (Paris: Paul Geunther, 1939), pp. 923–935.


David Vanderhooft, The Neo-Babylonian Empire and Babylon in the Latter Prophets (Harvard Semitic Monographs 59; Atlanta: Scholars Press, 1999), pp. 149–152.


Now housed in the University Museum of the University of Pennsylvania, the Museum of the Ancient Orient at the Istanbul Archaeological Museums in Istanbul, the Frau Professor Hilprecht Collection of Babylonian Antiquities at the University of Jena in Germany, The Phoebe A. Hearst Museum of Anthropology at the University of California, Berkeley, and the British Museum, London.


F. Joannès and A. Lemaire, “Trois tablettes cunéiformes à l’onomastique ouest-sémitique,” Transeuphratène 17 (1999), pp. 17–34.


Pearce and Wunsch, Documents, p. 28; Cornelia Wunsch, with collaboration of Laurie Pearce, Judeans by the Waters of Babylon. New Historical Evidence in Cuneiform Sources from Rural Babylonia in the Schøyen Collection, Babylonische Archive 6 (Dresden: ISLET, forthcoming).


Pearce & Wunsch, Documents, p. 28; Wunsch, Judeans.


R. Zadok, “The Nippur Region During the Late Assyrian, Chaldean and Achaemenian Periods Chiefly According to Written Sources,” Israel Oriental Studies 8 (1978); I. Eph‘al, “The Western Minorities in Babylonia in the 6th–5th Centuries B.C.: Maintenance and Cohesion,” Orientalia 47 (1978), pp. 74–90.


There is no cuneiform evidence of such a proclamation in the reign of Cyrus or of any other Achaemenid king. Claims that the Cyrus Cylinder [BM 90920+NBC 2504] does so are unfounded. As a typical building inscription, the barrel-shaped document touts the work authorized by Cyrus for the restoration of ancient shrines in the eastern and northern regions of Mesopotamia. For a recent translation, and a discussion of the place of the Cyrus Cylinder in the historiographic program of the Achaemenid empire, see P. Michalowski, “The Cyrus Cylinder,” in M. Chavalas, ed., Historical Sources in Translation: The Ancient Near East (Oxford: Blackwell, 2006), pp. 426–430. For an important, earlier study on the programmatic nature of the cylinder, see A. Kuhrt, “The Cyrus Cylinder and Achaemenid Imperial Policy,” Journal for the Study of the Old Testament 25 (1983), pp. 83–97.