George Smith, The Chaldean Account of Genesis (London: Sampson, Low, Marston, Scarle and Rivington, 1875), pp. 299–300; he had published some of the cuneiform texts five years earlier and issued preliminary translations of them.


See Joan Goodnick Westenholz, Legends of the Kings of Akkade: The Texts, Mesopotamian Civilizations 7 (Winona Lake, IN: Eisenbrauns, 1997), pp. 36–49; Brian Lewis, The Sargon Legend: A Study of the Akkadian Text (Cambridge, MA: American Schools of Oriental Research, 1980).


Gaston Maspero supposed that the Legend of Sargon projects the deeds of Sargon II into a remote past and says nothing about an earlier king (The Dawn of Civilisation [London: SPCK, 1885]), p. 599. See Lewis, Sargon Legend, pp. 101–107, for a similar view.


See Douglas R. Frayne, The Royal Inscriptions of Mesopotamia: Early Periods, vol. 2, Sargonic and Gutian Periods (2334–2113 BC) (Toronto: Univ. of Toronto Press, 1993); Ignace J. Gelb and Burkhart Kienast, Die Altakkadischen Königsinschriften des dritten Jahrtausends v. Chr., Freiburger Altorientalische Studien 7 (Stuttgart: Steiner, 1990).


Kenneth A. Kitchen, “Egyptians and Hebrews, from Raamses to Jericho,” in Shmuel Ahituv and Eliezer D. Oren, eds., The Origin of Early Israel—Current Debate, Beer-Sheva XII (Beer-Sheva: Ben-Gurion Univ., 1998), pp. 65–131, see pp. 105–106.


Kitchen, “Egyptians and Hebrews” pp. 72–78.


Kitchen, “The Tabernacle—A Bronze Age Artifact,” Eretz-Israel 24 (1993), pp. 119–129.


See further my study “Abraham, Akhenaten, Moses and Monotheism,” in Richard S. Hess, Philip R. Satterthwaite and Gordon J. Wenham, eds., He Swore an Oath: Biblical Themes from Genesis 12–50 (Wheaton, IL: Tyndale, 1993; reprint Grand Rapids, MI: Baker, 1994), pp. 119–27.


See Kitchen, Pharaoh Triumphant: The Life and Times of Ramesses II (Warminster, UK: Aris & Phillips, 1982), p. 86.


See Andreas Fuchs, “Die Inschrift vom Istar-Tempel,” in Rykle Borger, Beiträge zum Inschriftenwerk Assurbanipals (Wiesbaden: Harrassowitz, 1996), pp. 258–296, lines 146ff.


See Moshe Weinfeld, “Divine Intervention in War in Ancient Israel and the Ancient Near East,” in Hayim Tadmor and Moshe Weinfeld, eds., History, Historiography and Interpretation (Jerusalem: Magnes, 1983), pp. 121–147; and my remarks in “Story, History and Theology,” in Alan R. Millard, James K. Hoffmeier and David W. Baker (eds.), Faith, Tradition and History (Winona Lake, IN: Eisenbrauns, 1994), pp. 37–64, esp. pp. 42–43, 64.