Translated by Aryeh Finkelstein.



See Y. Yadin, “Megiddo of the Kings of Israel”, Qadmoniot Vol. 3 (1970), p. 38; Y. Yadin, Hazor (The Schweich Lectures, 1970), London, 1972, pp. 150 ff.


Y. Yadin, “Hazor, Gezer and Megiddo in the Days of Solomon” in A. Malamet (ed.), Days of the First Temple, Jerusalem, 1962, p. 103.


J. B. Pritchard, “The Megiddo Stables—A Reassessment”, in J. A. Sanders (ed.), Near Eastern Archeology in the 20th Century—Essays in Honor of Nelson Glueck, New York, 1970, pp. 268 ff.


P. L. O. Guy, “New Light from Armageddon,” Oriental Institute Communications, IX, Chicago, 1931; R. S. Lamon & G. M. Shipton, Megiddo, I, Chicago, 1939, pp. 32ff, 41ff.


Y. Shiloh, “The Four-Roomed House—A House Type from Israel,” in Eretz Israel XI, Jerusalem, 1973, p. 277.


On many of the columns there are tethering holes.


Pritchard , p. 271.


Ibid., p. 274.


A. Badawy, A History of Egyptian Architecture—The Empire, University of California Press, 1968, p. 151.


Ibid., p. 125 (Additional bibliography will also be found here). Regarding cattle-stalls, see N. de G. Davies, The Rock Tombs of El Amarna, London, 1903, pl. XXIX. See also H. Ricke, “Der Grundriss des Amarna Wohrhauses”, Osnabruch, 1967, p. 47.


J. D. S. Pendlebury, “Tell El Amarna”, London, 1935, p. 113.


Ibid., p. 41.


I am grateful to Mr. Y. Shiloh who mentioned this to me.


Ugaritica, IV (1962), p. 3; Fig. 13, p. 18; Syria, XIX (1938) pp. 313 ff.; XX (1939), p. 284; Illustrated London News, June 6, 1940, p. 26.


Professor Schaeffer did not give me the measurements for the depths of the depression, but one is able to see clearly either from the plan, or from the photographs that the mangers are shallow, and that the depressions’ measurements are similar to those of the mangers at Megiddo.


A. H. Layard, The Monuments of Nineveh, London, 1839. See R. D. Barnett, Assyrian Palace Reliefs, London (n.d.), pl. 21, for a good photograph of this tablet.


Ibid., Plate 63; See also, R. D. Barnett & M. Falkner, The Sculptures of Tiglath Pileser III, London, 1962, Pl. LXIII, p. 24.


The existence of chariot cities is also attested in a document of Sargon II, in which is described his “Eighth Campaign” to Ararat. One of the passages states: “Their inner walls are strong, the outside walls are strongly built, their trenches are deep and enclosed above. Inside there are horses, a reservoir—the royal horses stand in the stables, and are well fed all year round.” See, F. Thureau-Dangin, La Huitieme Campagne de Sargon, Paris 1912, p. 130, illustrations 188–191; D. D. Luckenbill, Ancient Records of Assyria and Babylon, II, Chicago 1926, p. 159. I am grateful to N. Newman for this reference, and for the translation cited above. We also learn of the existence of stables for horses and mules from the neo-Assyrian documents, recently published, which have been found at Nimrud, and date to the end of the 8th century. See also, J. V. Kinnier-Wilson, The Nimrud Wine Lists, London, 1972, p. 53 (“The King’s Stables”). I am grateful to Professor A. Malamat for this information.


As my student A. Raban proposed in a letter to me dated March 19, 1973.


“Hadashot Archiologiyot”, 48–49 (1974), p. 84. To these stable complexes must be added the building discovered by J. Naveh at Khirbat al-Muganna, in which were also found rows of pillars in which tethering holes had been perforated; IEJ, VIII (1958), pp. 87ff. 94; Figs. 2–3. Naveh’s assertion that the row of columns which is preserved in the central and western halls is located in the center of the halls, is inaccurate; the row is closer to the northern wall, and from this we are able to reconstruct the plan of these buildings, so that it matches very closely the reconstruction of the buildings at Megiddo and Beer-Sheva. It is worthwhile pointing out that these buildings, like their counterparts at Megiddo and Beer-Sheva, are situated in the city gate area, which is an appropriate location for horses’ stables.


Y. Aharoni (ed.), Beer-Sheba I, Tel-Aviv 1973, p. 29.


Ibid., p. 15. The variety of the finds surprised the excavator: “Such a multi-varied composition is surprising in a communal storehouse, for we would expect to find vessels for stock-piling (food) of a uniform shape;” “The rest of the vessels do not belong to a category that one expects to find in storehouses.” See Y. Aharoni, Hafirot Umehkarim, dedicated to Sh. Yeivin, Tel-Aviv 1973, p. 17.


Z. Herzog’s explanation for the existence of these vessels does not reconcile with the character of the find: “Products were brought in, measured, prepared and then taken out according to the needs of the administrative unit (civilian or military) for which they were intended.”. Was the food really taken out in bowls and jugs?