Namely the Aramaic Deir Alla Inscription mentioning the prophet Balaam (see Andrè Lemaire, “Fragments from the Book of Balaam Found at Deir Alla,” BAR 11:05) and the Aramaic Tel Dan Inscription (see “‘David’ Found at Dan,” BAR 20:02).



G.E. Mendenhall, “The Hebrew Conquest of Palestine,” Biblical Archaeologist 25 (1962), pp. 66–87, and G.E. Mendenhall, The Tenth Generation: The Origins of Biblical Tradition (Baltimore and London: Johns Hopkins Univ. Press, 1973). See also Bernhard W. Anderson, “Mendenhall Disavows Paternity—Says He Didn’t Father Gottwald’s Marxist Theory,” Bible Review 02:02.


Norman K. Gottwald, The Tribes of Yahweh: A Sociology of the Religion of Liberated Israel 1250–1050 B.C.E. (Maryknoll, NY: Orbis, 1979). See also P. Kyle McCarter, Jr., “A Major New Introduction to the Bible,” Bible Review 02:02.


W.G. Dever, Who Were the Early Israelites and Where Did They Come From? (Grand Rapids, MI and Cambridge, U.K.: Eerdmans, 2003), p. 54 (emphasis in original).


Today, by far the most accurate and up-to-date analysis of the archaeological evidence for Israel’s origins from an anthropological viewpoint is Avraham Faust, Israel’s Ethnogenesis: Settlement, Interaction, Expansion and Resistance (London: Equinox, 2007).


Dever, Who Were the Early Israelites and Where Did They Come From? pp. 122–123.


This chart, showing both the 13th-century B.C.E. and the 12th-century B.C.E. vessels from Izbet Sartah, Shiloh and Tall al-‘Umayri can be found on p. 51 of Anson F. Rainey, “Whence Came the Israelites and Their Language?” Israel Exploration Journal 57 (2007), pp. 41–64.


The pillared houses of the Cisjordan hill country are actually of the three-room house type, unlike, for example, the houses found in the Negev of Judah at Tel Masos which were built along the four-room plan.


Eveline van der Steen, “The Central East Jordan Valley in the Late Bronze and Early Iron Ages,” Bulletin of the American Schools of Oriental Research 302 (1996), pp. 51–74.


Dever, Who Were the Early Israelites and Where Did They Come From? p. 212.