1. See André Lemaire and Jean-Philippe Delorme, “Mesha’s Stele and the House of David,” BAR, Winter 2022.


1. For various scholarly views on Balu‘a’s identification in the Bible, see J. Maxwell Miller, “The Israelite Journey through (around) Moab and Moabite Toponymy,” Journal of Biblical Literature 108 (1989), pp. 593–595; Udo Worschech, “Ar Moab,” Zeitschrift für die Alttestamentliche Wissenschaft 109 (1997), p. 252; Edward Lipin´ski, On the Skirts of Canaan in the Iron Age: Historical and Topographical Researches (Leuven: Peeters, 2006), p. 354.

2. For a recent discussion of the Balu‘a Stele, see Bruce Routledge and Carolyn Routledge, “The Baluʿa Stela Revisited,” in Piotr Bienkowski, ed., Studies on Iron Age Moab and Neighboring Areas in Honour of Michèle Daviau (Leuven: Peeters, 2009), pp. 71–95.

3. For further discussion, see Fawzi Zayadine, “The Moabite Inscription,” Annual of the Department of Antiquities of Jordan 30 (1986), pp. 302–304.

4. For more on this inscription, see Udo Worschech, “An Inscription from al-Bālū‘ (Ard․ al-Karak),” Annual of the Department of Antiquities of Jordan 50 (2006), pp. 99–105.