Kathleen M. Kenyon, “Excavations in Jerusalem, 1964,” Palestine Exploration Quarterly 97 (1965), p. 13; and “Excavations in Jerusalem, 1965,” Palestine Exploration Quarterly 98 (1966), p. 76.


Yigal Shiloh, Excavations at the City of David I, 1978–1982: Interim Report of the First Five Seasons, Qedem 19 (1984), p. 26; see David Tarler and Jane Cahill, “David, City of,” in The Anchor Bible Dictionary (New York: Doubleday, 1992), vol. 2, p. 55.


H.J. Franken and Margreet L. Steiner, Excavations in Jerusalem, 1961–1967, vol. 2, The Iron Extramural Quarter on the South-east Hill (Oxford: Oxford Univ. Press, 1990), p. 6.


Zecharia Kallai and Haim Tadmor, “Bit Ninurta=Beit Horon: On the History of the Kingdom of Jerusalem in the Amarna Period,” Eretz Israel 9 (1969), p. 145; Israel Finkelstein, “The Sociopolitical Organization of the Central Hill Country in the Second Millennium B.C.E.,” in Biblical Archaeology Today, 1990, Pre-Congress Symposium, Supplement (Jerusalem: Israel Exploration Society, 1993), pp. 122–123; and “The Territorial-Political System of Canaan in the Late Bronze Age,” Ugarit-Forschungen 28 (1996), pp. 234–235, 255.


Albrecht Alt, “Die Landnahme der Israeliten in Palästina,” in Kleine Schriften zur Geschichte des Volkes Israel (Munich, 1953), vol. 1, pp. 107–108, and “Jerusalems Aufstieg,” in Kleine Schriften zur Geschichte des Volkes Israel (Munich, 1959), vol. 3, pp. 251–252; Nadav Na’aman, “Canaanite Jerusalem and Its Central Hill Country Neighbours in the Second Millennium B.C.E.,” Ugarit Forschunger 24 (1992), pp. 275–291.


Franken and Steiner, “Urusalim and Jebus,”Zeitschrift für die alttestamentliche Wissenschaft 104 (1992), pp. 110–111. Cf. Na’aman, “The Contribution of the Amarna Letters to the Debate of Jerusalem’s Political Status in the Tenth Century B.C.E.,” Bulletin of the American Schools of Oriental Research 304 (1996), p. 19.


EA (Tell el-Amarna letters) 286.12–13; 288.14–15.


EA 285.9–11, 22–25.


For the restoration of the text, see Na’aman, “Economic Aspects of the Egyptian Occupation of Canaan,” Israel Exploration Journal 31 (1981), p. 176 n. 21 and EA 288.16–22.


EA 290.


William L. Moran, “The Syrian Scribe of the Jerusalem Amarna Letters,” in Unity and Diversity: Essays in the History, Literature and Religion of the Ancient Near East, ed. Hans Goedicke and J.J.M. Roberts (Baltimore and London: Johns Hopkins Univ. Press, 1975), p. 151.


EA 244.42.


EA 289–290.


Rivka Gonen, “Urban Canaan in the Late Bronze Age,” Bulletin of the American Schools of Oriental Research 253 (1984), pp. 61–73; Avi Ofer, “‘All the Hill Country of Judah’: From a Settlement Fringe to Prosperous Monarchy,” in Archaeological and Historical Aspects of Early Israel, ed. Finkelstein and Na’aman (Jerusalem: Ben-Zvi/Israel Exploration Society, 1994), pp. 96–101; Shlomo Bunimovitz, “The Problem of Human Resources in Late Bronze Palestine and Its Socioeconomic Implications,” Ugarit-Forschungen 26 (1994), pp. 1–20.


Paul W. Lapp, “Taanach by the Waters of Megiddo,” Bibical Archaeologist 30 (1967), p. 8; Albert Glock, “Taanach,” in New Encyclopedia of Archaeological Excavations in the Holy Land, ed. Ephraim Stern (New York: Simom and Schuster, 1993), vol. 4, p. 1432.


EA 245.11–18.


Gonen, “Megiddo in the Late Bronze Age—Another Reassessment,” Levant 19 (1987), pp. 97–98. A large gatehouse was uncovered and dated to the Late Bronze Age, but it is not known to what fortification system it was related.


EA 243.10–18.


Cahill and Tarler, in Biblical Archaeology Today, 1990: Proceedings of the Second International Congress on Biblical Archaeology, Jerusalem, June–July 1990 (Jerusalem: Israel Exploration Society, 1993), p. 626.