David Tarler and Jane M. Cahill, “David, City of,” in The Anchor Bible Dictionary (New York: Doubleday, 1992), vol. 2, p. 55.


Henk J. Franken and Margreet L. Steiner, Excavations in Jerusalem 1961–1967, vol. 2, The Iron Age Extramural Quarter on the South-East Hill (Oxford: Oxford Univ. Press, 1990), pp. 6–7, Fig. 2–2.


Kathleen M. Kenyon, “Excavations in Jerusalem, 1964,” Palestine Exploration Quarterly (PEQ) 97 (1965), p. 12; “Excavations in Jerusalem, 1965,” PEQ 98 (1966), p. 76; Digging Up Jerusalem (London: Ernest Benn, 1974), p. 92.


Yigal Shiloh, “Jerusalem, the City of David, 1982,” Israel Exploration Journal 33 (1983), p. 130; Excavations at the City of David I 1978–1982: Interim Report of the First Five Seasons, Qedem 19 (1984), pp. 12, 26.


R.A.S. Macalister and J.G. Duncan, Excavations on the Hill of Ophel, Jerusalem, 1923–1925, Annual of the Palestine Exploration Fund 4 (1926), pp. 33, 74.


Cahill, Excavations in the City of David, 1978–1985 Directed by Yigal Shiloh: Area G, Qedem (forthcoming).


Kenyon, “Excavations in Jerusalem, 1964,” pp. 12–13.


Franken and Steiner, Excavations, pp. 61, 64.


Cahill and Tarler, “Response,” in Biblical Archaeology Today, 1990: Proceedings of the Second International Congress on Biblical Archaeology, Jerusalem, June–July 1990 (Jerusalem: Israel Exploration Society, 1993), pp. 625–626.


Cahill and Tarler, “Response,” p. 626; Tarler and Cahill, “David, City of” p. 55; Cahill and Tarler, “Excavations Directed by Yigal Shiloh at the City of David, 1978–1985,” in Ancient Jerusalem Revealed, ed. Hillel Geva (Jerusalem: Israel Exploration Society, 1994), pp. 34–35.


See Steiner, “Redating the Terraces of Jerusalem,” Israel Exploration Journal 44 (1994), p. 15: “The pottery inside the [terrace] fill can only give a terminus post quem for the building of the terraces; it is, however, significant that no sherds from the tenth century B.C.E. or later were found. On the basis of this evidence, the construction stage of the terrace system can be dated to the late 13th or the 12th century B.C.E.”


Because distinguishing the final phase of Late Bronze Age II from the first phase of Iron Age I is difficult and subject to controversy, Tarler and I have refrained from ascribing the architectural unit formed by the mantle of the Stepped-Stone Structure, its rubble core and the terrace fills to either cultural horizon. Steiner’s failure to specify the method she has used for distinguishing between the two horizons, and/or her reasons for doing so, is yet another flaw in her analysis. For a summary of the issues, see Amihai Mazar, “The Iron Age I,” in The Archaeology of Ancient Israel, ed. Amnon Ben-Tor (New Haven and London: Open University of Israel, 1992), pp. 260–262.


Rivka Gonen, “The Late Bronze Age,” in Ben-Tor,Archaeology of Ancient Israel, pp. 217–219; “Urban Canaan in the Late Bronze Period,” Bulletin of the American Schools of Oriental Research 253 (1984), pp. 61–73.


Gonen, “Megiddo in the Late Bronze Age—Another Reassessment,” Levant 19 (1987), p. 98.


See Gonen, “Late Bronze Age,” p. 217: “[T]he hill areas remained devoid of settlement. In the central hills, only Tapuah, Dothan, Hefer, Debir, Jerusalem, Bethel, Shechem, and Tell el-Far’ah North were occupied.”


Gonen, “Megiddo,” p. 97.


Nadav Na’aman, “Cow Town or Royal Capital? Evidence for Iron Age Jerusalem,” BAR 23:04; see also Tarler and Cahill, “David, City of,” p. 53.


Kenyon, Digging Up Jerusalem, p. 94.


Barry M. Gittlen, “The Late Bronze Age ‘City’ at Tel Miqne/Ekron,” Eretz Israel 23 (1992), pp. 50*–53*.


See, for example., Gonen, “Megiddo,” pp. 97–98: “Correlating literary with archaeological evidence for the Amarna period is … problematic. The paucity of direct evidence in the form of scarabs or other royal objects for this period in Canaan is well known. In its absence, dating of the period is based on the presence of Myc. IIIA2 pottery vessels of the type found at the site of El Amarna. However, the validity of the exact correlation between this family of pottery and El Amarna has been questioned. Nevertheless, even if the nature of the Mycenaean pottery at El Amarna was agreed upon, the Mycenaean pottery at Megiddo [and other sites in Canaan] could hardly be used to obtain a secure El Amarna date” (citations omitted).


Shiloh, “Jerusalem,” p. 129; Shiloh, City of David, pp. 4, 7, 12, 26.


Kenyon, Digging Up Jerusalem, p. 92 (Site P); “Excavations in Jerusalem, 1962,” PEQ 95 (1963), p. 17.


Although Steiner states that Kenyon found a complete jar, the published drawing depicts only a complete jar rim (Steiner, “Redating,” p. 18, fig. 6).


Steiner’s assertion that the terraces were bounded by a solid stone wall about 65 feet high is a mistake; the wall (Wall 70) is no more than 6.5 feet high (Steiner, “Redating,” p. 15, fig. 2).


See, for example, Pirhya Beck and Moshe Kochavi, “A Dated Assemblage of the Late 13th Century B.C.E. from the Egyptian Residency at Aphek,” Tel Aviv 12 (1985), pp. 29–42; Douglas L. Esse, “The Collared Store Jars: Scholarly Ideology and Ceramic Typology,” Scandinavian Journal of the Old Testament 2 (1991), pp. 99–115, and “The Collared Pithos at Megiddo: Ceramic Distribution and Ethnicity,” Journal of Near Eastern Studies 51 (1992), pp. 99–115; and David Wengrow, “Egyptian Taskmasters and Heavy Burdens: Highland Exploitation and the Collared-Rim Pithos of the Bronze/Iron Age Levant,” Oxford Journal of Archaeology 15 (1996), pp. 307–326.


Israel Finkelstein, “The Archaeology of the United Monarchy,” Levant 28 (1996), p. 182.


Piotr Bienkowski, “The Beginning of the Iron Age in Edom,” Levant 24 (1992), pp. 167–169; and Finkelstein, “Stratigraphy, Pottery, and Parallels,” Levant 24 (1992), pp. 171–172.


Collared-rim storage jars were once deemed to be the “fossile directeur for both the Iron I period and the Israelite presence within it. It has recently been shown, however, that the type begins to appear in LB II and is found also outside the Israelite sphere in Iron I. Thus, its significance lies not in its mere appearance, but rather in its relative frequency in the assemblage” (Raphael Greenberg, “New Light of the Early Iron Age at Tell Beit Mirsim,” Bulletin of the American Schools of Oriental Research 265 [1987], p. 71).


Steiner, “Redating,” p. 18.


For a complete jar with reed impressions on its rim like that published by Steiner but dated to the Late Bronze Age II by the accompanying pottery and artifacts, which include Egyptian scarabs, see Gershon Edelstein and Ianir Milevski, “The Rural Settlement of Jerusalem Re-evaluated: Surveys and Excavations in the Reph‘aim Valley and Mevasseret Yerushalyim,” PEQ 126 (1994), pp. 2–23.


Tarler and Cahill, “David, City of,” p. 56; Shiloh, “Jerusalem,” in The New Encyclopedia of Archaeological Excavations in the Holy Land, ed. Ephraim Stern (New York: Simon and Schuster, 1993), vol. 2, p. 703.


Steiner, “The Jebusite Ramp of Jerusalem: The Evidence of the Macalister, Kenyon and Shiloh Excavations,” in Biblical Archaeology Today, 1990: Proceedings of the Second International Congress on Biblical Archaeology, Jerusalem, June–July 1990, ed. Avraham Biran and Joseph Aviram (Jerusalem: Israel Exploration Society, 1993), p. 587.


Kenyon, “Excavations in Jerusalem, 1964,” p. 13, pls. IVA-B. The photo that appears on p. 32 of Steiner’s article appeared in Kenyon’s article as pl. IVB. This photo is a close-up of an accompanying photo (pl. IVA in Kenyon’s article) that clearly shows the soil- and stone-terrace fills disappearing beneath the stones identified by Steiner as belonging to the stepped mantle.


Kenyon, Digging Up Jerusalem, pl. 37. Compare the location of the Stepped-Stone Structure and Kenyon’s Site H on the map titled “Excavations and Archaeological Remains in the City of David,” published by Shiloh in City of David, pp. 40–41.


Kenyon, “Excavations in Jerusalem, 1962,” pp. 14–16 and pl. 8.


Shiloh, The Proto-Aeolic Capital and Israelite Ashlar Masonry, Qedem 11 (Jerusalem: Hebrew University Institute of Archaeology), pp. 19–21.


See the discussion of Wall 4 in: Eilat Mazar and Benjamin Mazar, Excavations in the South of the Temple Mount: The Ophel of Biblical Jerusalem, Qedem 29 (1989), pp. 9–12, photo 13.