On the question of whether Hadrian founded Aelia Capitolina in 130 C.E., on this trip, or in 136 C.E., after the Second Jewish Revolt, see “Aelia Capitolina: Jerusalem No More,” in this issue. That Hadrian is known to have founded other colonies during his iter principis provides further support for the earlier date.



See Helmut Halfmann, Itinera principum: Geschichte und Typologie der Kaiserreisen im römischen Reich (Stuttgart: Franz Steiner Verlag, 1986).


Kenneth Holum, “Hadrian and Caesarea: An Episode in the Romanization of Palestine,” The Ancient World 33 (1992), pp. 51–61. More generally, see William F. Stinespring, “Hadrian in Palestine, 129/30 A.D.,” Journal of the American Oriental Society 59 (1939), pp. 360–365; see also Benjamin Isaac, The Limits of Empire, rev. ed. (Oxford: Oxford Univ. Press, 1992).


On Hadrian’s vision for the Roman empire, see Jocelyn M.C. Toynbee, The Hadrianic School: A Chapter in the History of Greek Art (Cambridge: Cambridge Univ. Press, 1934), still one of the best books on Hadrian. Another “best book,” of a very different kind, is Marguerite Yourcenar’s brilliant Memoirs of Hadrian, trans. Grace Frick (New York: Farrar, Straus & Giroux, 1954), a fictional autobiography based on the ancient sources.


See Gideon Foerster, “A Cuirassed Bronze Statue of Hadrian,” ‘Atiqot, English ser. 17 (1985), pp. 139–160.