The term “stratigraphy” refers to the concept that archaeological remains lie in layers, called “strata” (singular “stratum”), with the earliest on the bottom and the most recent on top.


A casemate wall consists of long parallel walls subdivided by cross-walls into little rooms, which could be filled in if necessary for defensive purposes.


An ashlar is a finely hewn building stone.


Burnishing consists of polishing the pot before firing, which gives it a glossy finish.


A slip is a thin layer of very fine clay that is applied to the pot before firing. A slip provides a deep, even color.



Henk J. Franken, The History of Pots and Potters in Ancient Jerusalem (forthcoming).


Margreet L. Steiner, Excavations in Jerusalem 1961–67, vol. 3,The Settlement in the Bronze and Iron Ages (Sheffield: Sheffield Academic Press, forthcoming).


Ruth Amiran, “A Late Bronze Age II Pottery Group from a Tomb in Jerusalem,” in Eretz Israel 6 (1961), pp. 25–37, English summary 27*; D.C. Baramki, “An Ancient Cistern in the Ground of Government House in Jerusalem,” Quarterly of the Department of Antiquities in Palestine 4 (1936), pp. 165–167; Sylvester J. Saller, The Excavations at Dominus Flevit (Mount Olivet, Jerusalem), vol. 2, The Jebusite Burial Place (Jerusalem: Franciscan Press, 1964).


Gabriel Barkay, “A Late Bronze Age Egyptian Temple in Jerusalem,” Israel Exploration Journal 46 (1996), pp. 23–43.


Kathleen Kenyon dated terraces near the Gihon Spring to the Amarna period (Digging Up Jerusalem [London: Ernest Benn, 1974], pp. 95–97). The dating is wrong, but the terraces are still very important, as they are now to be dated to Iron Age I. Yigal Shiloh excavated another part of the same terrace system and followed Kenyon’s interpretation, although with some caution. Shiloh wrote, “It is possible that it was built only c. the 13th century B.C.E.” (Excavations at the City of David I, 1978–1982: Interim Report of the First Five Seasons, Qedem 19 [1984], p. 16.) Study of the pottery in both Leiden and Jerusalem has now clearly shown that the terraces did not originate in the Late Bronze Age (Jane Cahill and David Tarler, “Response,” in Biblical Archaeology Today, 1990: Proceedings of the Second International Congress on Biblical Archaeology, Jerusalem, June–July 1990, ed. Avraham Biran and Joseph Aviram [Jerusalem: Israel Exploration Society, 1993], pp. 625–626; Steiner, “Redating the Terraces of Jerusalem,” Israel Exploration Journal 44 [1994], pp. 13–20). In the terrace fill Kenyon recovered only 15 pottery sherds from the Late Bronze Age (some postdating the Amarna period), as opposed to several hundred sherds dating to Iron Age I. No Late Bronze Age pottery was found in any of the other terrace fills excavated in the city.


See William L. Moran, The Amarna Letters (Baltimore: Johns Hopkins Univ. Press, 1992).


See Shlomo Bunimovitz, “On the Edge of Empires—Late Bronze Age (1500–1200 B.C.E.),” in The Archaeology of Society, ed. Thomas E. Levy (London: Leicester Univ. Press, 1995), pp. 320–329; Israel Finkelstein, “The Sociopolitical Organization of the Central Hill Country in the Second Millennium B.C.E.,” in Biblical Archaeology Today, 1990, Pre-Congress Symposium; Supplement (Jerusalem: Israel Exploration Society, 1994), pp. 119–131; Thomas Thompson, Early History of the Israelite People, from the Written and Archaeological Sources (Leiden: Brill, 1992).


Raymond Weill, La Cité de David: Compte-rendue des fouilles exécutees à Jérusalem sur la site de ville primitive, Campagne de 1923–1924, 2 vols. (Paris: Geunther, 1920)


J.W. Crowfoot and G.M. Fitzgerald, “Excavations in the Tyropoeon Valley 1927,” in Annual of the Palestine Exploration Fund 5 (1929).


Kenyon, Digging Up Jerusalem, p. 76.


Shiloh, Excavations at the City of David, pp. 11–15.


These trenches include Kenyon’s Site C in the Muristan, Nahman Avigad’s exposures in the Jewish Quarter, Ute Lux’s work in the Lutheran church (Erlöscherkirche) in the Muristan and the excavations by Benjamin and Eilat Mazar on the Ophel.


This is the city wall on top of the hill: the tower north of the Stepped-Stone Structure and the wall north of it. The fortifications south of it are Hellenistic. See Kenyon, Digging Up Jerusalem, photos 76 and 77.


Barry M. Gittlen, The Late Bronze Age “City” at Tel Miqne/Ekron, Eretz Israel 23 (1992), pp. 50*–53*.


See David Jamieson-Drake, Scribes and Schools in Monarchic Judah: A Socio-archaeological Approach, in The Social World of Biblical Antiquity 9, Journal for the Study of the Old Testament Supplement Series 109 (Sheffield: JSOT Press, 1991); Thompson, Early History of the Israelite People (Leiden: Brill, 1992); Margaret M. Gelinas, “United Monarchy—Divided Monarchy: Fact or Fiction?” in The Pitcher is Broken: Memorial Essays for Gösta W. Ahlstrom, ed. S.W. Holloway and L.K. Handy, Journal for the Study of the Old Testament Supplement Series 228 (Sheffield: JSOT Press, 1995), pp. 227–237; Niels Peter Lemche, “From Patronage Society to Patronage Society,” in The Origins of the Ancient Israelite State, ed. Volkmar Fritz and Philip R. Davies, Journal for the Study of the Old Testament Supplement Series 228 (Sheffield: JSOT Press, 1996), pp. 106–120; A. Graeme Auld and Steiner, Jerusalem I: From the Bronze Age to the Maccabees, Cities of the Biblical World (Cambridge: Lutterworth Press, 1996).


See Kenyon, Digging Up Jerusalem, pp. 95–97; and Shiloh, Excavations at the City of David, p. 26.


See Steiner, “The Jebusite Ramp of Jerusalem: The Evidence of the Macalister, Kenyon and Shiloh Excavations,” in International Congress, pp. 585–588.


Cahill and Tarler, “Response,” pp. 625–626.


See Kenyon, Digging Up Jerusalem, pls. 33 and 34.


See Kenyon, Digging Up Jerusalem, pl. 64.


Kenyon, Digging Up Jerusalem, pp. 114–115, pl. 37.


Kenyon, Jerusalem: Excavating 3000 Years of History (London, 1967), p. 59, pl. 20. The capital was dated by Shiloh to the ninth century B.C.E. (Shiloh, The Proto-Aeolic Capital and Israelite Ashlar Masonry [Jerusalem: Hebrew Univ./Israel Exploration Society, 1979], p. 21).


See Kenyon, Digging Up Jerusalem, p. 115, pl. 38. Also E. Mazar and B. Mazar, Excavations in the South of the Temple Mount: The Ophel of Biblical Jerusalem (Jerusalem: Hebrew Univ. of Jerusalem, 1989), pp. 9–12, photo 13.


Shiloh,Excavations at the City of David, p. 17, pl. 29. Also E. Mazar, “Excavate King David’s Palace!” BAR 23:01.


See Franken and Steiner, Excavations in Jerusalem, 1961–1967, vol. 2, The Iron Age Extramural Quarter on the South-east Hill (Oxford: Oxford Univ. Press, 1990), pp. 50–56; Shiloh, Excavations at the City of David, pp. 26–29; Steiner, “A Note on the Iron Age Defense Wall on the Ophel Hill of Jerusalem,” Palestine Exploration Quarterly 118 (1986), pp. 27–32, and “The Earliest City Wall of Jerusalem,” Israel Exploration Journal 38 (1988), pp. 203–204.


See, among others, Finkelstein, “The Archaeology of the United Monarchy: An Alternative View,” Levant 28 (1996), pp. 177–187; also see the following articles in the Bulletin of the American Schools of Oriental Research 277/278 (1990): John S. Holladay, “Red Slip, Burnish, and the Solomonic Gateway at Gezer,” pp. 23–70; David Usshishkin, “Notes on Megiddo, Gezer, Ashdod and Tel Batash in the Tenth to Ninth Centuries B.C.,” pp. 71–92; Gregory J. Wightman, “The Myth of Solomon,” pp. 5–22.


Avi Ofer, “‘All the Hill Country of Judah’: From Settlement Fringe to a Prosperous Monarchy,” in From Nomadism to Monarchy: Archaeological and Historical Aspects of Early Israel, ed. Finkelstein and Nadav Na’aman (Jerusalem: Ben-Zvi/Israel Exploration Society, 1994), pp. 92–121.


Shiloh, Excavations at the City of David, pp. 11–12.


Gershon Edelstein and Ianir Milevski, “The Rural Settlements of Jerusalem Re-evaluated: Surveys and Excavations in the Reph‘aim Valley and Mevasseret Yerushalyim,” Palestine Exploration Quarterly 126 (1994), pp. 2–23.


Kay Prag, “The Intermediate Early Bronze-Middle Bronze Age Cemetery on the Mount of Olives,” in Excavations by K.M. Kenyon in Jerusalem, 1961–1967, vol. 4, The Iron Age Cave Deposits on the South-east Hill and Isolated Burials and Cemeteries Elsewhere, ed. Itzhak Eshel and Prag (Oxford: Oxford Univ. Press, 1995), pp. 221–242.


Louis-Hugues Vincent, Jerusalem sous Terre—Les récentes fouilles d’Ophel (London, 1911), p. 29; R.A.S. Macalister and J. Garrow Duncan, Excavations on the Hill of Ophel, Jerusalem, 1923–1925, Annual of the Palestine Exploration Fund 4 (1926), plate 5, rockscarp A; Kenyon, Digging Up Jerusalem, p. 83; Shiloh, Excavations at the City of David, p. 12; and Steiner, “The Earliest City Wall of Jerusalem,” Israel Exploration Journal 38 (1988), pp. 203–204.