This figure is preserved in quotations from Manetho in an Armenian version of Eusebius’s history and by a Greek priest, Georgius Syncellus (792 A.D.), rather than in Josephus.


We know Y‘qb-HR scarabs were those of a Hyksos king because the name is Semitic, not Egyptian; it dates from the Hyksos period and the name is almost always enclosed in an oval known as a cartouche, the indication that the name is a royal one.


Egyptian kings had five names, the last called a nomen and the fourth called a prenomen. (Alan H. Gardiner, Egyptian Grammar, 3rd edition, [London: Oxford Univ. Press, 1964], p. 71.) Normally, Egyptians referred to their kings by only these last two names.


A scholarly version of this paper was published in Pharaonic Egypt, ed. Sarah Israelit-Groll (Jerusalem, 1985), pp. 129–137.



See Alan H. Gardiner, The Royal Canon of Turin (Oxford: Oxford Univ. Press, 1959).


J. Elgavish, “Shigmona,” Encyclopedia of Archaeological Excavations in the Holy Land (Jerusalem: Israel Exploration Society and Massada Press, 1975), vol. III, p. 1101. Aharon Kempinski, Canaan (Syria-Palestine) During the Last State of the MB IIb Period (1650–1550), (Jerusalem, 1974), pp. 95–96 (in Hebrew); Syrien und Palästina (Kanaan) in der Letzten Phase der Mittelbronze II B-Zeit (1650–1570 v chr.), AAT 4, (Wiesbaden, 1983), pp. 74–75. R. Giveon, “Y‘qobhar,” Göttingen Miscellen 44 (1981), pp. 17–19.


W. Helck, Die Beziehungen Aegyptens zu Vorderasien im 3. und 2. Jahrt. v Chr. (Wiesbaden, 1962), pp. 103–104.


Raymond Weill La Fin du Moyen Empire Égyptien, (Paris, 1918), vol. 1, pp. 188–191.


Since this process of settlement seems today to be a long one (over approximately 100 years), such contacts in the religious sphere are most probable.


And see Thutmosis III list in Karnak, No. 102, H.W. Helck, Untertsuchungen zu Manetho, (Berlin, 1956), p. 132. Weill, La Fin du Moyen Empire. p. 189, would like to add here also a place name from the list of Ramses II Y-[‘]-ku-b-r(w), which seems likely. Yohanan Aharoni, The Land of the Bible, A Historical Geography (Philadelphia: Westminster Press, 1979), p. 163, places the name in Upper Galilee, but to my mind it belongs to the following group: the “Land of Gezer.”


The origins of this Royal House could have been in the city of Shechem; cf., the strong connections of Jacob to this area in the fragment of the Shechem stories of Jacob, Genesis 33–34.


See David Cassuto, “Ya-‘a-kov,” Encyclopedia Biblica (in Hebrew), (Jerusalem: Bialik Institute, 1958), vol. III, pp. 716–722.


Of the other two rulers of the Anakites, one (Ahiman) bears a Semitic name (meaning who is like my brother), and the other (Talmai), a Hurrian name.