1. Steven Fine, “The Temple Menorah—Where Is It?BAR, July/August 2005.

2. Joan E. Taylor, “Secrets of the Copper Scroll,BAR, July/August/September/October 2019.


1. Harry H. Moskoff, “Is There New Evidence of Jewish Temple Treasures in the Vatican?” The Jerusalem Post (February 10, 2022).

2. The treatise received a full English translation only in 2013: James Davila, “The Treatise of the Vessels (Massekhet Kelim),” in Richard Bauckham, James R. Davila, & Alexander Panayotov, eds., Old Testament Pseudepigrapha: More Noncanonical Scriptures, vol. 1 (Grand Rapids: Eerdmans, 2013), pp. 393–409. For more, see Elena Dugan, “Unearthing Babylonian Treasure Caches and Textual Fluidity within Massekhet Kelim,” Jewish Studies Quarterly 28.2 (2021), pp. 111–136.

3. See Jozef T. Milik, “Notes d’épigraphie et de topographie palestiniennes,” Revue Biblique 66.4 (1959), pp. 567–575, plate XIV.

4. For example, the title “Massekhet Kelim” is also the title of a tractate in the Mishnah. Moreover, the Babylon-centric versions even label the treasure-caches as “Mishnah I,” “Mishnah II,” and so on.