See the standard Bible dictionaries under “Weights and Measures”; also Roland de Vaux, Ancient Israel (New York: McGraw-Hill, 1965), pp. 196–198.


The word translated as giant in 2 Samuel 21:16, 18, 20 and 1 Chronicles 20:4, 6, 8, is rapha’ (plural: rephaim). In Deuteronomy 3:13 we are told Bashan is the land of the Rephaim, often translated as land of the giants. In Deuteronomy 3:1 “Rephaim” is also translated as giants, for example, in the King James Version. See André Caquot, “Rephaim,” Supplément au Dictionnaire de la Bible (Paris: Latouzey &: Ané 1981), fasc. 55, cols. 344–57, for opinions on the Rephaim.


According to S.R. Driver it was J.D. Michaelis who gave birth to the idea that eres here might denote a sarcophagus, rather than a bed. See Driver, Deuteronomy (International Critical Commentary; Edinburgh: Clark, 1902), p. 52.


Drivel; Deuteronomy, p. 54.


Driver noted one near Tyre which was 12 feet long and 6 feet wide and high.


G.A. Smith, The Book of Deuteronomy (Cambridge, UK: Cambridge Univ. Press, 1918), p. 49.


Martin Noth, The History of Israel(London: A. and C. Black, 1958), p. 160 n. 1, Roland de Vaux, The Early History of Israel(London: Darton, Longman, Todd, 1978), p. 567.


Chicago Prism III 43. For the text in transliteration, see R. Borger, Babylonisch-Assyrische Lesestücke, 2nd ed. (Rome: Pontifical Biblical Inst., 1979), p. 75.


Sargon’s Eighth Campaign, line 388, F. Thureau-Dan, Une relation de la huitieme campagne de Sargon (Paris: Geuthner, 1912); edited by W Mayer, “Sargon’s Feldzuge gegen Urartu—714 v. Chr. Text und Ubersetzung,’ Mitteilungen der deutschen Orientgesellschaft 115 (1983), pp. 65–132. On the treasure taken, see Mayer, “Die Finanzierung einer Kampagne (TCL 3, 346–410),” Ugarit-Forschungen 11 (1979), pp. 571–599.


Vassilios Karageorghis, Excavations in the Necropalis of Salamis III (Nicosia, Cyprus: Dept. of Antiquities of Cyprus, 1973), pp. 87–97.


Traces of an iron foundry have been found in the Late Bronze Age palace at Kamid el-Loz, ancient Kamidu, at the southern end of the Beqa in Lebanon. See B. Fisch, G. Mansfeld, WR. Thiele, Kamid el-Loz 6. Die Werkstatten der spätbronzezeitlichen Paläste(Bonn: Habelt, 1985). For other evidence, see P.R.S. Moorey, Materials and Manufacture in Ancient Mesopotamia, the Evidence of Archaeology and Art (Oxford: British Archaeological Reserves ports, 1983), pp. 93–96.


See C. Zaccagnini, “KBo I 14 e il ‘Monopolio’ hittita del ferro,” Rivista degli Studi Orientale 45 (1970), pp. 11–20.


T. Ozguc, “An Ivory Box and a Stone Mould from Acemhoyuk” Belleten 40 (1976), pp. 555–560.


See Hans G. Guterbock, “Hittite Historiography: A Survey,” History, Historiography and Interpretation, ed. Haim Tadmor and Moshe Weinfeld Jerusalem: Magnes, 1983), pp. 22–25; E. Neu, Der Anitta-Text (Wiesbaden: Harrassowitz, 1974).


A.D.H. Mayes, Deuteronomy (London: Oliphants, 1979), p. 144; H.D. Preus, Deuteronomium (Darrnstadt: Wissenschaftliche Buchgesellschaft, 1982).