1. See Oded Lipschits, “Enduring Impressions: The Stamped Jars of Judah,” BAR, Winter 2022.


1. Excavations by the Israel Antiquities Authority (IAA) at the City of David National Park began in 2003, under the direction of Eli Shukron and Ronny Reich, and continued from 2006 to 2017 under Doron Ben-Ami and Yana Tchekhanovets. The renewed excavation, conducted jointly by the IAA and Tel Aviv University and sponsored by the Ir David Foundation, began in July 2017. It is managed by the present authors, with the assistance of Efrat Bocher and Nitsan Shalom, both of whom contributed to this article.

2. Doron Ben-Ami and Yana Tchekhanovets, “A New Fragment of Proto-Aeolic Capital from Jerusalem,” Tel Aviv 42 (2015), pp. 67–71.

3. For these two seals, see Doron Ben-Ami and Yana Tchekhanovets, “A Late Iron Age II Administrative Building Excavated in the City of David,” in Saar Ganor et al., eds., From Shaar Hagolan to Shaaraim (Jerusalem: Israel Exploration Society, 2016), pp. *103–*110 (Hebrew).