John Gray, Men Are from Mars, Women Are from Venus (New York: Harper Perennial, 1992); Deborah Tannen, You Just Don’t Understand: Women and Men in Conversation (New York: Morrow, 1990).


Tannen, Understand, pp. 24–25.


Tannen, Understand, p. 25.


Tannen, Understand, p. 26.


Tannen, Understand, p. 27.


Pamela M. Fishman, “Interaction: The Work Women Do,” in Language, Gender and Society, ed. Barrie Thorne, Cheris Kramarae and Nancy Henley (Rowley, MA: Newbury House, 1983), p. 94.


Julie R. McMillan, A. Kay Clifton, Diane McGrath and Wanda S. Gale, “Women’s Language: Uncertainty or Interpersonal Sensitivity and Emotionality?” Sex Roles 4 (1977), pp. 551–552.


Jean Berko Gleason and Esther Blank Greif, “Men’s Speech to Young Children,” in Thorne, Kramarae and Henley, Language, Gender and Society, p. 142.


Fishman, “Interaction,” p. 97.


Barbara Westbrook Eakins and R. Gene Eakins, Sex Differences in Human Communication (Boston: Houghton Mifflin, 1978), p. 26. Similar results surfaced in an analysis of question and answer periods at academic conferences. In one study, women gave 40.7 percent of the papers and made up 42 percent of the audience; however, they made only 27.4 percent of the responses following the presentations and took only half as long to phrase their comments (the mean was 23.1 seconds for women and 52.7 seconds for men). See Marjorie Swacker, “Women’s Verbal Behavior at Learned and Professional Conferences,” in Papers in Southwest English IV: Proceedings of the Conference on the Sociology of the Languages of American Women, ed. Betty Lou Dubois and Isabel Crouch (San Antonio: Trinity Univ., 1978), p. 156.


Tannen, Understand, p. 77.


All biblical quotations are taken from the Revised Standard Version.


Jack M. Sasson, “Ruth,” in The Literary Guide to the Bible, ed. Robert Alter and Frank Kermode (Cambridge: Harvard Univ. Press, Belknap, 1987), p. 324.


Word counts do not include direct object markers.


Campbell Leaper et al., “Self-Disclosure and Listener Verbal Support in Same-Gender and Cross-Gender Friends’ Conversations,” Sex Roles 33 (1995), p. 388.


Jack W. Sattel, “The Inexpressive Male: Tragedy or Sexual Politics?” in Men’s Lives, ed. Michael S. Kimmel and Michael A. Messner (New York: Macmillan, 1989), p. 375.


Nehama Aschkenasy, “Language as Female Empowerment in Ruth,” in Reading Ruth: Contemporary Women Reclaim a Sacred Story, ed. Judith A. Kates and Gail Twersky Reimer (New York: Ballantine, 1994), p. 113.


Cynthia Ozick, Metaphor and Memory (New York: Alfred A. Knopf, 1989), pp. 252, 256.


Danna Nolan Fewell and David Miller Gunn, “Compromising Redemption: Relating Characters in the Book of Ruth,” in Literary Currents in Biblical Criticism (Louisville, KY: Westminster/John Knox, 1990), pp. 100–101.