Hershel Shanks, “Isaiah among the Scrolls,BAR 37:04; Sidnie White Crawford, “A View from the Caves: Who Put the Scrolls in There?BAR 37:05.


Astrid Beck and James A. Sanders, “The Leningrad Codex,Bible Review 13:04.


David Marcus and James A. Sanders, “What’s Critical About a Critical Edition of the Bible?BAR 39:06.



For example, in his essay “The Development of the Masoretic Bible,” in Adele Berlin and Marc Zvi Brettler, eds., The Jewish Study Bible, 2nd ed. (Oxford: Oxford Univ. Press, 2004, 2014), Jordan S. Penkower notes the paucity of texts in this interim: “It is especially difficult to reconstruct this period because we lack direct witnesses to the Hebrew text; i.e., we do not have Hebrew mss [manuscripts] from most of this period.” The Ashkar-Gilson manuscript had apparently not yet been published.


Paul Sanders, “The Ashkar-Gilson Manuscript: Remnant of a Proto-Masoretic Model Scroll of the Torah,” Journal of Hebrew Scriptures 14 (2014); see