The Mishnah is the earliest rabbinic classic, the core of the oral Torah, compiled about 200 C.E.



It was an English ecclesiastic, Humphrey Prideaux, who at the beginning of the 18th century first created the term and concept of “intertestamental” Judaism. See H. Prideaux, The Old and the New Testament Connected in the History of the Jews and Neighboring Nations (2 vols.; London, 1716–18).


See Heinrich Graetz, History of the Jews from Ancient Times to the Present (11 vols.; Leipzig, 1853–76).


The “sectarian” approach was predominant in post-war scholarship. See M. Simon, Les sectes juives au temps de Jésus (Paris: Presses universitaires de France, 1960); and Leila Bronner, Sects and Separatism during the Second Jewish Commonwealth (New York: Bloch, 1967).


See Donald A. Hagner, The Jewish Reclamation of Jésus: An Analysis and Critique of the Modern Jewish Study of Jesus (Grand Rapids, MI: Academie Books, 1984).


See Robert A. Kraft and George W.E. Nickelsburg, Early Judaism and Its Modern Interpreters (Atlanta: Scholars Press, 1986).


Shaye J.D. Cohen, From Maccabees to the Mishnah (Philadelphia: Westminster Press, 1987), pp. 214 and 24.


Lawrence Schiffman, From Text to Tradition: A History of Second Temple and Rabbinic Judaism, (Hoboken, NJ: Ktav, 1991), p. 2.


André Paul, Le judaïsme ancient et la Bible (Paris: Cerf, 1987), p. 282.


David Flusser, Judaism and the Origins of Christianity (Jerusalem: Magnes Press, 1988), p. xii.


Jacob Neusner, “Preface,” in Judaisms and Their Messiahs at the Turn of the Christian Era, ed. J. Neusner, William S. Green and Ernest S. Frerichs (Cambridge: Cambridge Univ. Press, 1987), pp. xi-xii.


J. Neusner, Studying Classical Judaism: A Primer (Louisville, KY: Westminster and John Knox Press, 1991), pp. 59 and 64.


J. Neusner, Judaism and Scripture: The Evidence of Leviticus Rabbah (Chicago: Univ. of Chicago Press, 1986), p. xi.


James H. Charlesworth, ed., Jews and Christians: Exploring the Past, Present and Future (New York: Crossroad, 1990), p. 37. See also J. Maier, Between the Testaments. History and Religion of the Second Temple Period (Munich: Echter Verlag, 1990); and Frederick J. Murphy, The Religious World of Jesus (New York: Abingdon, 1991).


Paolo Sacchi, Storia del Secondo Tempio: Israele tra VI secolo a.C. e I secolo d.C. (Torino: SEI, 1994), p. 280.


See James D.G. Dunn, The Partings of the Ways Between Christianity and Judaism and Their Significance for the Character of Christianity (London: SCM Press; Philadelphia: Trinity Press, 1991); and Hershel Shanks, ed., Christianity and Rabbinic Judaism: A Parallel History of Their Origins and Early Development (Washington, DC: Biblical Archaeology Society, 1992).


Alan F. Segal, Rebecca’s Children: Judaism and Christianity in the Roman World (Cambridge, MA: Harvard Univ. Press, 1986). pp. 1 and 179.


J.D.G. Dunn, “What did Christianity lose when it parted from Judaism?” Explorations 8 (2, 1994), p. 3.


This new model has led to its own terminology. I call the period we are discussing neither “Late Judaism,” as did the pointalists, nor “Early Judaism,” as did the straight-line evolutionists, but “Middle Judaism.” It is the transitional age between Biblical Judaism and the parallel development of Rabbinic Judaism and Christianity. See G. Boccaccini, Middle Judaism: Jewish Thought, 300 BCE to 200 CE (Minneapolis: Fortress, 1991); G. Boccaccini, Portraits of Middle Judaism in Scholarship and Arts: A Multimedia Catalog from Flavius Josephus to 1991 (Torino: Zamorani, 1992); G. Boccaccini, “Middle Judaism and Its Contemporary Interpreters (1986–1992): Methodological Foundations for the Study of Judaisms, 300 B.C.E. to 200 C.E.,” Henoch 15 (1993), pp. 207–233; and G. Boccaccini, “History of Judaism: Its Periods in Antiquity,” in Judaism in Late Antiquity, ed. J. Neusner (Leiden: Brill, 1994) vol. 2, pp. 279–303.